Friday, June 25, 2010


The word "temple" refers to various forms and functions of buildings, among others, four of worship, religious teaching centers, where the ashes to save the king, a place of worship or place of deity dwells, petirtaan (baths) and the gate. Although a variety of functions, general functions of the temple can not be separated from religious activities, especially Hinduism and Buddhism, in the past. Therefore, the development history of the temple is very closely related to the history of empires and the development of Hinduism and Buddhism in Indonesia, since the 5th century until the 14th century.

Because sjaran Hindus and Buddhists from countries India, the temple got a lot of Indian influence in various aspects, such as: construction techniques, styles of architecture, decoration, and so forth. Nevertheless, the influence of local culture and natural conditions were very strong, so the architecture of the temple, Indonesia has its own character, both in the use of materials, construction technique or pattern decor. The walls of the temple is usually given in the form of relief decoration that contains teachings or stories.

Manasara mentioned in the book that forms a basic knowledge of art temple gate buildings, namely building located at the entrance to or exit from a place, land, or territory. Arch itself can serve as a guide or as a border gate, located on the boundary wall of a particular building complex. Gopuram has important functions in a complex of buildings, so the arch is also nencerminkan majesty of the building restrictions. The second difference lies in the office building. The temple has a closed room while the room is a hallway in the arch that serves as the exit-entry.

A few religious books in India, for example Prakasa Manasara and SIPA, which includes gate making rule upheld by the artists of buildings in India. The artists at that time believed that the regulations contained in the religious scriptures are sacred and magical. They believe that creating a true and beautiful buildings have separate meanings for the creators and rulers who ordered the building. The buildings are built properly and beautiful will bring prosperity and happiness to society. Confidence makes the artists who will create a gateway to the preparation and planning, both religious and technical.

One of the most important part in the technical design of the sketch is correct, because with the right sketch of the building will be generated as expected of the artist. Making sketches of buildings should be based on rules and specific requirements, related to the shape, size, and its layout. If in the manufacture of building deviations from the provisions of religious books would result in great hardship for the manufacturer and the surrounding community. That means that the provisions in the religious books can not be changed by arbitrarily. However, a culture, including art building, can not be separated from the influence of natural conditions and local culture, and the influence of time. In addition, each artist has a different imagination and creativity.

Until now, there are many temples is found in various parts of Indonesia, especially in Sumatra, Java, and Bali. Although most of them in ruins, but not least the still intact and even still be used to perform religious ceremonies. As a result of human culture, the beauty and elegance of the temple gives an idea of the greatness of the kingdoms in the past.

Hindu temples in Indonesia are generally built by the king during his lifetime. Statue of god, like God Vishnu, Brahma, Goddess Tara, the goddess Durga, who are placed in temples made by many as the embodiment of their ancestors. Even sometimes the relevant history of the king mentioned in the inscription that the temple offerings. Unlike Hindu temples, Buddhist temples are generally constructed as a form of devotion to religion and to obtain a reward. Buddhism is reflected in the temples in Central Java is the Mahayana Buddhism, which was adopted by Buddhists in Indonesia until recently. Unlike adopted Hinayana Buddhism in Myanmar and Thailand.

In this web site, description of the temple in Indonesia are grouped into: the temple in Central Java and Yogyakarta, the temple in East Java, Bali's temples and temple in Sumatra. Although in the present Central Java and Yogyakarta provinces represent two distinct, but historically these areas can be said under the authority of the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram, a very big role in the construction of temples in these two provinces. Grouping the temples in Central Java and Yogyakarta based on the current administrative region is difficult, however, based on characteristics, these temples can be grouped in temples in the northern region and the temples in the southern region.

The temples are located in the northern regions, which are generally built by the House of Sanjaya, a Hindu temple in the form of building a simple, unadorned shelf, and built in groups but each stands alone and is situated irregularly irregular. Included in this group, including: Candi Candi Dieng and Gedongsanga. The temple in the southern region, which is generally built by the House of Syailendra, a Buddhist temple with a beautiful building form and loaded with ornaments. The temple in the northern region is generally built in groups with the same pattern, namely the main temple is located in the center surrounded by rows of chapel. Included in this group, among them: Prambanan Temple, Mendut, Temple Kalasan Sewu, and Borobudur.

The temples in East Java are generally younger than those found in Central Java and Yogyakarta, because construction is done under the rule of the successor kingdoms of the Hindu Mataram kingdom, like the Kingdom KAHURIPAN, Singasari, Kediri and Majapahit. Basic materials, building styles, style and story content reliefs in the temples of East Java is very diverse, depending on their future development. For example, the temples built during the kingdom Singasari generally made of andesite and colored by the teachings Tantrayana (Hindu-Buddhist), while those built during the Majapahit Kingdom is generally made from red brick and more colored by Buddhism.

The temples in Bali is a Hindu temple and is generally most still used for the implementation of the religious ceremony until today. On the island of Sumatra, there are two Buddhist temples that are still found, namely Portibi in North Sumatra province and Candi Muara Takus in Riau Province.

Most temples in Indonesia was found and restored at the beginning of the 20th century. On June 14, 1913, the Dutch colonial government established the so-called archeological body Oudheidkundige Dienst (commonly abbreviated as OD), so the handling of the temples in Indonesia became more intensive. This web site is planned to contain a description of all existing temples in Indonesia, but currently not all the temples be covered.

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