Friday, June 25, 2010

The establishment of the Kingdom of Majapahit history

After Singhasari Sriwijaya away from Java overall on year 1290, Singhasari become the most powerful empire in the region. This to the attention of Kublai Khan, ruler of Dynasty Yuan in China. He send envoy named to the Chi Meng Demanding Singhasari tribute. Kertanagara, Singashari ruler the latter refused to pay tribute and embarrass envoy those with damage face and bypass ear. Kublai Khan was angry and then expedition dispatch great to Java in 1293. At that time, Jayakatwang, duke of Kediri, was killed Kertanagara. On the advice of Aria Wiraraja, Jayakatwang give clemency to Raden Wijaya, Kertanegara-law, who came to surrender. Raden Wijaya then given the woods Pull. He opened the forest and built a new village. The village was named Majapahit, whose name is taken from maja fruit, and taste "bitter" from these fruits. When the Mongols arrived, Wijaya allied with the Mongol army to fight Jayakatwang. Raden Wijaya Mongolnya ally turns against forcing them withdraw from a chaotic because they are in foreign territory. It was also their last chance to catch the monsoon winds to be able to go home, or they would have had to wait another six months on a foreign island. The exact date of which is used as date of birth of the Majapahit empire, Raden Wijaya was the day of coronation as king, that on November 10, 1293. He was crowned with the official name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana. The kingdom was facing problems. Some people trusted Kertarajasa, including Ranggalawe, Sora, and Nambi rebelled against him, though the revolt did not succeed. Slamet Muljana mahapati Halayudha guess that was the conspiracy to overthrow all of the king, so he can reach the highest positions in government. However, after the death of the last rebel (Kuti), Halayudha arrested and jailed, and then sentenced to death. Wijaya died in 1309. Wijaya's son and heir, Jayanegara, is the master of evil and immoral. He dubbed Gemet Kala, meaning "weak villain". In 1328, Jayanegara killed by tabibnya, Tanca. Her stepmother, Gayatri Rajapatni should replace him, but Rajapatni choose resigned from the palace and become a preacher woman. Rajapatni pointed Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi daughter to become queen of Majapahit. During the reign Tribhuwana, Majapahit kingdom grew into larger and more famous in the area. Majapahit Tribhuwana mastered until her death in 1350. He was succeeded by his son, Hayam Wuruk. Hayam Wuruk glory of Majapahit, also known as Rajasanagara, ruled Majapahit in 1350 until 1389. At the time of Majapahit reached the peak of its power with the help mahapatihnya, of Gajah Mada. Under the command of Gajah Mada University (1313-1364), Majapahit control of more territory. In 1377, several years after the death of Gajah Mada, Majapahit attack by sea to Palembang, causing the collapse of the remnants of Sriwijaya. According Nagarakertagama stanza XIII-XV, the Majapahit kingdom covering Sumatra, Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara islands, Maluku, Papua, and some islands of the Philippines. However, the limits of nature and the economy shows that regions that power does not seem to be under centralized power of Majapahit, connected to one another but by the trade that may be a monopoly by the king [14]. Majapahit also has a relationship with Campa, Cambodia, Siam, southern Burma, and Vietnam, and even send-dutanya ambassador to China. After the fall of Majapahit reached its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit kingdom was gradually weakening. There appears to be a civil war (War Paregreg) in 1405-1406, between Wirabhumi against Wikramawardhana. Similarly, there has been a fight about the turn of the king in the year 1450 - an, and the great rebellion waged by a nobleman in the year 1468 [7]. In Javanese tradition there is a chronogram or candrasengkala which reads ilang kretaning earth vanished. This is said year Sengkala end of Majapahit and should be read as 0041, the year of Saka 1400, or 1478 CE. Sengkala meaning is "gone gone prosperity earth." However, the truth is illustrated by the deaths of Bre candrasengkala Kertabumi, the 11th king of Majapahit, by Girindrawardhana. When Majapahit founded, Muslim traders and the spreaders of religion had begun entering the archipelago. In the late 14th century and early 15th century, the Majapahit influence throughout the archipelago began to decrease. At the same time, a new trading empire based on Islam, the Sultanate of Malacca, began to emerge in the western part of the archipelago. Note the history of China, Portuguese (Tome Pires), and Italy (Pigafetta) indicates that there has been displacement of the Majapahit kingdom in the hands of Hindu rulers into the hands of the Duke of Unus, the ruler of the Sultanate of Demak, between the years 1518 and 1521 AD

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