Saturday, November 20, 2010

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Culture of Indonesia


Indonesian culture has been shaped by long interaction between original indigenous customs and multiple foreign influences. Indonesia is central along ancient trading routes between the Far East and the Middle East, resulting in many cultural practices being strongly influenced by a multitude of religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Islam, all strong in the major trading cities. The result is a complex cultural mixture very different from the original indigenous cultures.

Examples of cultural fusion include the fusion of Islam with Hindu in Javanese Abangan belief, the fusion of Hinduism, Buddhism and animism in Bodha, and the fusion of Hinduism and animism in Kaharingan; others could be cited.

Indonesian art-forms express this cultural mix. Wayang, traditional theater-performed puppet shows, were a medium in the spread of Hinduism and Islam amongst Javan villagers. Both Javanese and Balinese dances have stories about ancient Buddhist and Hindu kingdoms, while Islamic art forms and architecture are present in Sumatra, especially in the Minangkabau and Aceh regions. Traditional art, music and sport are combined in a martial art form called Pencak Silat.
Western culture has greatly influenced Indonesia in modern entertainment such as television shows, film and music, as well as political system and issues. India has notably influenced Indonesian songs and movies. A popular type of song is the Indian-rhythmical dangdut, which is often mixed with Arab and Malay folk music.

Despite the influences of foreign culture, some remote Indonesian regions still preserve uniquely indigenous culture. Indigenous ethnic groups Mentawai, Asmat, Dani, Dayak, Toraja and many others are still practising their ethnic rituals, customs and wearing traditional clothes.
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Sculpture

Indonesia has a long-he Bronze and Iron Ages, but the art-form particularly flourished in the eighth to tenth centuries, both as stand-alone works of art, and also incorporated into temples.
Most notable are the hundreds of meters of relief sculpture at the temple of Borobudur in central Java. Approximately two miles of exquisite relief sculpture tell the story of the life of Buddha and illustrate his teachings. The temple was originally home to 504 statues of the seated Buddha. This site, as with others in central Java, show a clear Indian influence.
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Recreation and sports

Many traditional games are still preserved and popular in Indonesia, although western culture has influenced some parts of them. Among three hundred officially recognized Indonesian cultures, there are many kinds of traditional games: cockfighting in Bali, annual bull races in Madura, and stone jumping in Nias. Stone jumping involves leaping over a stone wall about up to 1.5 m high and was originally used to train warriors. Pencak Silat is another popular form of sport, which was influenced by Asian culture as a whole. Another form of national sport is sepak takraw. The rules are similar to volleyball: to keep the rattan ball in the air with the players' feet.
Popular modern sports in Indonesia played at the international level include association football and badminton. Indonesian badminton athletes have played in Indonesia Open Badminton Championship, All England Open Badminton Championships and many international events, including the Summer Olympics since badminton was made an Olympic sport in 1992. Rudy Hartono is a legendary Indonesian badminton player, who won All England titles seven times in a row (1968 through 1974). Indonesian teams have won the Thomas Cup (men's world team championship) thirteen of the twenty-two times that it has been contested since they entered the series in 1957. In the hugely internationally popular sport of soccer (football), Indonesian teams have been active in the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

Sporting events in Indonesia are organised by the Indonesian National Sport Committee (KONI). The Committee, along with the government of Indonesia, have set a National Sports Day on every September 9 with "Sports for All" as the motto. Jakarta has hosted the Southeast Asian Games three times, in 1979, 1987 and 1997, and won gold medals in each of these years. Indonesia has won gold medals at nine of the fifteen games it has attended.
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Monday, October 11, 2010

Cuisine

The cuisine of Indonesia has been influenced by Chinese culture and Indian culture, as well as by Western culture. However in return, Indonesian cuisine has also contributed to the cuisines of neighboring countries, notably Malaysia and Singapore, where Padang or Minangkabau cuisine from West Sumatra is very popular. Also Satay (Sate in Indonesian), which originated from Java, Madura, and Sumatra, has gained popularity as a street vendor food from Singapore to Thailand. In the fifteenth century, both the Portuguese and Arab traders arrived in Indonesia with the intention of trading for pepper and other spices. During the colonial era, immigrants from many different countries have arrived in Indonesia and brought different cultures as well as cuisines.
Most native Indonesians eat rice as the main dish, with a wide range of vegetables and meat as side dishes. However, in some parts of the country, such as Irian Jaya and Ambon, the majority of the people eat sago (a type of tapioca) and sweet potato.

The most important aspect of modern Indonesia cuisine is that food must be halal, conforming to Islamic food laws. Haraam, the opposite of halal, includes pork and alcoholic drinks. However, in some regions where there is significant non-Muslim population, non-halal food are also commonly served.

Indonesian dishes are usually spicy, using a wide range of chili peppers and spices. The most popular dishes include nasi goreng (fried rice), Satay, Nasi Padang (a dish of Minangkabau) and soy-based dishes, such as tofu and tempe. A unique characteristic of some Indonesian food is the application of spicy peanut sauce in their dishes, as a dressing for Gado-gado or Karedok (Indonesian style salad), or for seasoning grilled chicken satay. Another unique aspect of Indonesian cuisine is using terasi or belacan, a pungent shrimp paste in dishes of sambal oelek (hot pungent chili sauce). The sprinkling of fried shallots also gives a unique crisp texture to some Indonesian dishes.

Chinese and Indian cultures have influenced the serving of food and the types of spices used. It is very common to find Chinese food in Indonesia such as Dim Sum as well as noodles, and Indian cuisine such as Tandoori chicken. In addition, Western culture has significantly contributed to the extensive range of dishes. However, the dishes have been transformed to suit Indonesian people's tastes. For example, steaks are usually served with rice. Popular fast foods such as Kentucky Fried Chicken are served with rice instead of bread, and sambal (spicy sauce) instead of ketchup. Some Indonesian foods have been adopted by the Dutch, like Indonesian rice table or 'rijsttafel'.
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Sunday, October 10, 2010

Popular media

The largest chain of cinemas in Indonesia is 21Cineplex, which has cinemas spread throughout twenty-four cities on the major islands of Indonesia. Many smaller independent cinemas also exist.
In the 1980s, the film industry in Indonesia was at its peak, and dominated the cinemas in Indonesia with movies that have retained a high reputation, such as Catatan Si Boy and Blok M and actors like Onky Alexander, Meriam Bellina, Nike Ardilla and Paramitha Rusady. However, the film industry failed to continue its successes in the 1990s, when the number of movies produced decreased significantly, from 115 movies in 1990 to just 37 in 1993. As a result, most movies produced in the '90s contained adult themes. In addition, movies from Hollywood and Hong Kong started to dominate Indonesian cinema. The industry started to recover in the late 1990s, with the rise of independent directors and many new movies produced, such as Garin Nugroho's Cinta dalam Sepotong Roti, Riri Riza and Mira Lesmana's Petualangan Sherina and Arisan! by Nia Dinata.[5] Another form of recovery is the re-establishment of the Indonesian Film Festival (FFI), inactive for twelve years, and the creation of the Jakarta International Film Festival. Daun di Atas Bantal (1998) received The Best Movie award in the 1998 Asia Pacific Film Festival in Taipei.
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Sunday, October 3, 2010

History of Indonesia

Indonesia is an archipelagic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. The country's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade; trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. The area of Indonesia is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures, ethnicities, and languages. The archipelago's landforms and climate significantly influenced agriculture and trade, and the formation of states.
Fossilised remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, were originally from Taiwan and arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished bringing Hindu and Buddhist influences with it. The agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties subsequently thrived and declined in inland Java. The last significant non-Muslim kingdom, the Hindu Majapahit kingdom, flourished from the late 13th century, and its influence stretched over much of Indonesia. The earliest evidence of Islamised populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra; other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam which became the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences.
Europeans arrived in Indonesia from the 16th century seeking to monopolise the sources of valuable nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalised colony. By the early 20th century Dutch dominance extended to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during WWII ended Dutch rule, and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, nationalist leader, Sukarno, declared independence and was appointed president. The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, but a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence.
An attempted coup in 1965 led to a violent army-led anti-communist purge in which over half a million people were killed. General Suharto politically out-manoeuvred President Sukarno, and was formally appointed president in March 1968. His New Order administration garnered the favour of the West whose investment in Indonesia was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. In the late 1990s, however, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian Financial Crisis which led to popular protests and Suharto's resignation on 21 May 1998. The Reformasi era following Suharto's resignation, has led to a strengthening of democratic processes, including a regional autonomy program, the secession of East Timor, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, natural disasters, and terrorism have slowed progress. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain problems in some areas.
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Saturday, October 2, 2010

Indonesia Malaysia confrontation People and terrain

In 1961, the island of Borneo was divided into four separate states. Kalimantan, comprising four Indonesian provinces, was located in the south of the island. In the north, separated from Kalimantan by a border some 1000 miles long, were the Sultanate of Brunei (a British protectorate) and two colonies of the United Kingdom (UK)—Sarawak and British North Borneo (later renamed Sabah).
The three UK territories totalled some 1.5 million people, about half of them Dayaks. Sarawak had a population of about 900,000, while Sabah's was 600,000 and Brunei's was around 80,000. Among Sarawak's non-Dayak population, 31% were Chinese, and 19% were Malay. Among non-Dayaks in Sabah, 21% were Chinese and 7% were Malay; Brunei's non-Dayak population was 28% Chinese and 54% Malay. There was a large Indonesian population in Tawau in southern Sabah and a large and economically active Chinese one in Sarawak. Despite their population size, Dayaks were spread through the country in village longhouses and were the not politically organised.
Sarawak was divided into five administrative Divisions. Sabah, whose capital city was Jesselton (Kota Kinabalu) on the north coast, was divided into several Residencies; those of the Interior and Tawau were on the border.

Apart from either end, the border generally followed a ridge line throughout its length, rising to almost 2500 metres in the Fifth Division. In the First Division, there were some roads, including a continuous road from Kuching to Brunei and around to Sandakan on the east coast of Sabah. There were no roads in the Fourth and Fifth Divisions or the Interior Residency, and in Third Division, there was only the coast road, which was some 150 miles from the border. Mapping was generally poor, as British maps of the country showed very little topographic detail. Indonesian maps were worse; veterans recall “a single black and white sheet for all of Kalimantan torn from a school text book” in 1964.

Kalimantan was divided into four provinces, of which West Kalimantan (Barat) and East Kalimantan (Timur) face the border. The capital of the first is Pontianak on the west coast, about 100 miles from the border, and the capital of the East is Samarinda on the south coast, some 220 miles from the border. There were no roads in the border area other than some in the west, and no road existed linking West and East Kalimantan.
The lack, on both sides of the border, of roads and tracks suitable for vehicles meant that movement was limited to foot tracks mostly unmarked on any map, as well as water and air movement. There were many large rivers on both sides of the border, and these were the main means of movement, including Hovercraft by the UK. There were also quite a few small grass airstrips suitable for light aircraft, as dropping zones for parachuted supplies, and for helicopters.

The equator lies 100 miles south of Kuching, and most of northern Borneo receives over 3000 mm of rain each year. Borneo is naturally covered by tropical rainforest. This covers the mountainous areas cut by many rivers with very steep sided hills and hilltop ridges often only a few metres wide. The high rainfall means large rivers; these provide a main means of transport and are formidable tactical obstacles. Dense mangrove forest covering vast tidal flats intersected with numerous creeks is a feature of many coastal areas, including Brunei and either end of the border. There are cultivated areas in valleys and around villages. The vicinity of abandoned and current settlements are areas of dense secondary regrowth.
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Indonesia Malaysia confrontation

The Indonesia Malaysia confrontation (also known as Konfrontasi in Indonesian and Malay) was an undeclared war between Indonesia and United Kingdom-backed Malaysia over the future of the island of Borneo from 1962 to 1966. The origins of the conflict lay in Indonesian attempts to destabilise the new federation of Malaysia, which came into being in 1963.
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Bomireddi Narasimha Reddy

Bommireddi Narasimha Reddy (16 November 1908, Y.Kothapalli, Kadapa district, Madras Province November 1977) was an Indian film director and an early figure in the Telugu cinema industry, also known as Tollywood. He was eldest of the three brothers; others are B. Nagi Reddy and B.N. Konda Reddy. He is the director who balances artistic values and business needs in the right proportion. Many of his earlier films like Vande Mataram, Devatha had Chittor V. Nagaiah as lead. His 1951 film Malliswari starring N T Rama Rao and Bhanumathi is considered a timeless classic. He was the second person to receive the prestigious 'Dada Saheb Phalke Award' from South India. Earlier He was honored with Padmabhushan by government of India.
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Friday, October 1, 2010

Sultanate of Mataram

The Sultanate of Mataram was the third Sultanate in Java, after the Sultanate of Demak Bintoro and the Sultanate of Pajang.

According to Javanese records, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan became the ruler of the Mataram area in the 1570s with the support of the kingdom of Pajang to the east, near the current site of Surakarta (Solo). Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram after his ascension.

Pamanahan's son, Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga, replaced his father on the throne around 1584. Under Senapati the kingdom grew substantially through regular military campaigns against Mataram's neighbors. Shortly after his accession, for example, he conquered his father's patrons in Pajang.

The reign of Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak (c. 1601-1613), the son of Senapati, was dominated by further warfare, especially against powerful Surabaya, already a major center in East Java. The first contact between Mataram and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occurred under Krapyak. Dutch activities at the time were limited to trading from limited coastal settlements, so their interactions with the inland Mataram kingdom were limited, although they did form an alliance against Surabaya in 1613. Krapyak died that year.

Krapyak was succeeded by his son, who is known simply as Sultan Agung ("Great Sultan") in Javanese records. Agung was responsible for the great expansion and lasting historical legacy of Mataram due to the extensive military conquests of his long reign from 1613 to 1646.

After years of war Agung finally conquered Surabaya. The city surrounded by land and sea and starved it into submission. With Surabaya brought into the empire, the Mataram kingdom encompassed all of central and eastern Java, and Madura; only in the west did Banten and the Dutch settlement in Batavia remain outside Agung's control. He tried repeatedly in the 1620s and 1630s to drive the Dutch from Batavia, but his armies had met their match, and he was forced to share control over Java.

In 1645 he began building Imogiri, his burial place, about fifteen kilometers south of Yogyakarta. Imogiri remains the resting place of most of the royalty of Yogyakarta and Surakarta to this day. Agung died in the spring of 1646, with his image of royal invincibility shattered by his losses to the Dutch, but he did leave behind an empire that covered most of Java and its neighboring islands.
Upon taking the throne, Agung's son Susuhunan Amangkurat I tried to bring long-term stability to Mataram's realm, murdering local leaders that were insufficiently deferential to him, and closing ports so he alone had control over trade with the Dutch.

By the mid-1670s dissatisfaction with the king fanned into open revolt. Raden Trunajaya, a prince from Madura, lead a revolt fortified by itinerant mercenaries from Makassar that captured the king's court at Mataram in mid-1677. The king escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king Amangkurat II, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram. Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunajaya looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in East Java leaving Puger in control of a weak court.

Amangkurat I died just after his expulsion, making Amangkurat II king in 1677. He too was nearly helpless, though, having fled without an army or treasury to build one. In an attempt to regain his kingdom, he made substantial concessions to the Dutch, who then went to war to reinstate him. For the Dutch, a stable Mataram empire that was deeply indebted to them would help ensure continued trade on favorable terms. They were willing to lend their military might to keep the kingdom together. Dutch forces first captured Trunajaya, then forced Puger to recognize the sovereignty of his elder brother Amangkurat II.
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Thursday, September 30, 2010

The age of Islamic states

Although Muslim traders first traveled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. Although it is known that the spread of Islam began in the west of the archipelago, the fragmentary evidence does not suggest a rolling wave of conversion through adjacent areas; rather, it suggests the process was complicated and slow. The spread of Islam was driven by increasing trade links outside of the archipelago; in general, traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were the first to adopt the new religion.
Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam, making it the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java. Only Bali retained a Hindu majority. In the eastern archipelago, both Christian and Islamic missionaries were active in the 16th and 17th centuries, and, currently, there are large communities of both religions on these islands.
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Saturday, September 25, 2010

Fatimah Binti Maimun Leran Manyar Gresik

Fatimah Binti Maimun Graveyard is located in Leran village, Manyar, about 5 km toward Pantura from Gresik town.
The tourism fascination is the old Islam spreader’s (in Indonesia) cemetery.
According to a history, Siti Fatimah Binti Maimun is the daughter of a King from Gedah, which when he arrived in Gresik port, he felt sick and finally pass away at 1082 A.D.
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History of Surabaya

Surabaya (pronounced [surəˈbaja]) (formerly Soerabaja) is Indonesia's second-largest city, and the capital of the province of East Java. It is located on the northern shore of eastern Java at the mouth of the Mas River and along the edge of the Madura Strait.
To Indonesians, it is known as "the city of heroes", due to the importance of the Battle of Surabaya in galvanising Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution.
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Friday, September 24, 2010

OtakOtak Bandeng Gresik

Gresik otak-otak bandeng is different with otak-otak from Jakarta, West Java or Sumatra. This otak-otak is made by fresh milk fish. The meat is been taken from the inside of the fish without any bones. After the meat being flavored wit some spices, the meat paste is putted in inside of the fish again, then baked for some minutes.
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Thursday, September 23, 2010

History of Gresik

The port of Gresik-Djaratan has been an important commercial center since the eleventh century, trading with merchants from as far away as China, India, and Arabia. These traders helped spread Islam in the area. In 1487, Sunan Giri, Syech Maulana Malik Ibrahim, also known as Sultan Ainul Yaqin, began to rule Gresik. In his 1515 book, Suma Oriental, Portuguese apothecary and traveller, Tomé Pires, described Gresik as "the jewel of Java in trading ports" Sunan Giri's descendants ruled the area for the next two centuries.
In 1974, the Indonesian government made Gresik, now a suburb of the regional capital of Surabaya, the capital of Gerbankartasusilo.
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Sunday, September 19, 2010

The Japanese Occupation

After their attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, the Japanese forces moved southwards to conquer several Southeast Asian countries. After Singapore had fallen, they invaded the Dutch East Indies and the colonial army surrendered in March 1942.
Soekarno and Hatta were released from their detention. The Japanese began their propaganda campaign for what they called "Great East Asia Coprosperity". But Indonesians soon realized that it was a camouflage for Japanese imperialism in place of Dutch colonialism.
To further the cause of Indonesia's independence, Soekarno and Hatta appeared to cooperate with the Japanese authorities. In reality, however, Indonesian nationalist leaders went underground and masterminded insurrections in Blitar (East Java), Tasikmalaya and Indramayu (West Java), and in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
Under the pressure of the 4th Pacific war, where their supply lines were interrupted, and the increasing of Indonesian insurrections, the Japanese ultimately gave in to allow the red-and-white flag to fly as the Indonesian national flag. Recognition of "Indonesia Raya" as the national anthem and Bahasa Indonesia as the national language followed. Hence, the youth's pledge of 1928 was fulfilled.
After persistent demands, the Japanese finally agreed to place the civil administration of the country into Indonesian hands. This was a golden opportunity for nationalist leaders to prepare for the proclamation of Indonesia's independence.
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Nationalist Movements

When all these regional wars of independence failed, Indonesian nationalists began thinking of a more-organized struggle against Dutch colonialism. The move began with the founding of Boedi Oetomo, literally meaning "noble conduct," on May 20, 1908. This organization of Indonesian intellectuals was initially set up for educational purposes but later turned into politics. It was inspired by Japan's victory over Russia in 1901, which also gave impetus to nationalist movements in many parts of Indonesia. The founder of Boedi Oetomo was Dr. Soetomo who was, at the time, a student of STOVIA, an institution to train Indonesian medi-cal officers. Dr. Soetomo was greatly influenced by Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo and sup-ported by Gunawan and Suradji.
In 1912 Sarekat Dagang Islam, the Association of Moslem Merchants, was formed by Haji Samanhudi and others.
Its objective was at first to stimulate and promote the interest of Indonesian business in the Dutch East Indies. However, in 1912 this organization of middle class businessmen turned into a political party and was renamed Sarekat Islam under the leadership of H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto, Haji Agoes Salim and others. In 1912 a progressive Moslem organization, Muhammadiyah, was established by K.H. Akhmad Dahlan in Yogyakarta for the purpose of social and economic reforms.
In December of the same year Partai Indonesia was founded by Douwes Dekker, later named Setiabudi, with Dr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo and Ki Hajar Dewantoro. The objective of the party was to strive for complete independence of Indonesia. All three leaders of the party were exiled by the colonial government in 1913.
In 1914 communism was introduced in the East Indies by three Dutch nationals-Sneevliet, Baars and Brandsteder. In May 1920 Sarikat Islam split into a right and a left wing, the latter was to become the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI, the Indonesian Communist Party) under the leadership of Semaun, Darsono, Alimin, Muso and others.

* The Powerless People's Council or Volksraad
In 1916 Sarikat Islam held its first convention in Bandung and resolved the demand for self-government for Indonesia in cooperation with the Dutch. When Sarikat Islam demanded a share in the legislative power in the colony, the Dutch responded by setting up the Volksraad in 1918 which was virtually a powerless people's council with an advisory status.
Indonesian representatives on the council were indirectly elected through regional councils, but some of the other members were appointed colonial officials.
The Volksraad later developed into a semi-legislative assembly. Among the members of this body were prominent nationalist leaders like Dr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo, H.O.S. Tjokroaminoto, Abdul Muis, Dr. G.S.S.J. Ratulangi, M.H. Thamrin, Wiwoho, Sutardjo Kartohadikusumo, Dr. Radjiman, and Soekardjo Wiryopranoto.
Under the pressure of the social unrest in the Netherlands at the end of World War I, the Dutch promised to grant self-government to Indonesians. This was known as the "November promise." It was a promise that was never met.
Besides the Volksraad, there was another body called Raad van Indie, "the Council of the Indies," whose the members were appointed by the Government Achmad Djajadiningrat and Sujono were among the very few Indonesian members of this council.
In 1923 deteriorating economic conditions and increasing labor strikes prompted the colonial government to put severe restrictions on Indonesian civil liberties and make amendments to the colonial laws and penal codes. Freedom of assembly, speech and expression in writing was restricted.
* Further Growth of Indonesian Organizations
Despite the political restrictions, on July 3, 1922 Ki Hajar Dewantoro founded Taman Siswa, an organization to promote national education. In 1924 the Indonesian Students Association, "Perhimpunan Mahasiswa Indonesia," was formed by Drs. Mohammad Hatta, Dr. Sukiman and others. This organization became a driving force of the nationalist movement to gain independence. The Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) staged revolts against the colonial government in November 1926 in West Java, and in January 1927 in West Sumatra. After their suppression the Government exiled many non-communist nationalist leaders to Tanah Merah, which the Dutch called "Boven Digul" in Irian Jaya. Dr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo was exiled to Bandaneira.
In February 1927 Mohammad Hatta, Achmad Soebardjo and other members of Indonesia's Movements attended the first international convention of the "League Against Imperialism and Colonial Oppression" in Brussels, together with Jawaharlal Nehru and many other prominent nationalist leaders from Asia and Africa. In July 1927, Soekarno, Sartono and others formed the Indonesian Nationalist Party (PNI), which adopted Bahasa Indonesia as the official language. This party adopted a militant policy of non-cooperation with the Government as the result of a fundamental conflict of interest between Indonesian nationalism and Dutch colonialism. In the same year, an all-Indonesia nationalist movement was organized by Indonesian youth to replace earlier organizations, which had been based on regionalism, such as "Young Java," "Young Sumatra" and "Young Ambon."
On October 28, 1929, delegates to the second Indonesian Youth Congress in Jakarta pledged allegiance to "one country, one nation and one language, Indonesia." Concerned about the growing national awareness of freedom, the colonial authorities arrested the PNI leader, Soekarno, in December 1929. This touched off widespread protests by Indonesians. In 1930 the world was in the grip of an economic and monetary crisis. The severe impact of the crisis was felt in the Indies, a raw material producing country.
The colonial government responded with a strict balanced budget policy that aggravated economic and social conditions. Two other leaders of the PNI, Gatot Mangkupradja and Maskun Supriadinata, were arrested and tried in court on charges of plotting against the Government. Soekarno was released in September 1931 but exiled again in August 1933. He remained in Dutch custody until the Japanese invasion in 1942.
In January 1931, Dr. Soetomo founded Persatuan Bangsa Indonesia, the Indonesian Unity Party. Its objective was to improve the social status of the Indonesian people. In April of the same year, PNI was abandoned. A new party was formed by Sartono, LLM and named Partai Indonesia, the Indonesian Party. Its basis was nationalism, its line was independence. Also in 1931, Sutan Syahrir formed Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia. Known as the new PNI, it envisaged national education. Mohammad Hatta joined this organization. In 1933 a mutiny broke out on the Dutch warship "De Zeven Provincien" for which Indonesian nationalists were held responsible. The following year Sutan Syahrir and Mohammad Hatta and other nationalist leaders were arrested and banished until 1942. In 1935, Soetomo merged Persatuan Bangsa Indonesia and Boedi Oetomo to form Partai Indonesia Raya (Parindra). Its fundamental goal was the independence of Great Indonesia. In July 1936, Sutardjo submitted to the "Volksraad" a petition calling for greater autonomy for Indonesia. This petition was flatly rejected by the Dutch-dominated Council. In 1937 Dr. A.K. Gani started the Indonesian People's Movement, Gerakan Rakyat Indonesia, which was based on the principles of nationalism, social independence and self-reliance. In 1939 the All Indonesian Political Federation, GAPI, called for the establishment of a full-fledged Indonesian parliament. This demand was rejected by the Government in Holland in 1940.
GAPI also demanded an Indonesian military service for the purpose of defending the country in times of war. Again, this was turned down, notwithstanding the impending outbreak of World War II. At the time, there were widespread movements for fundamental and progressive reforms in the colonies and dependencies in Asia.
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Saturday, August 28, 2010

Srivijaya

Srivijaya was a ethnic Malay kingdom on Sumatra which influenced much of the Maritime Southeast Asia. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
As early as the first century CE Indonesian vessels made trade voyages as far as Africa. Picture: a ship carved on Borobudur, circa 800 CE.
The empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia
Srivijaya was centred in the coastal trading centre of present day Palembang. Srivijaya was not a "state" in the modern sense with defined boundaries and a centralized government to which the citizens own allegiance. Rather Srivijaya was a confederacy form of society centered on a royal heartland. It was a thalassocracy and did not extend its influence far beyond the coastal areas of the islands of Southeast Asia. Trade was the driving force of Srivijaya just as it is for most societies throughout history. The Srivijayan navy controlled the trade that made its way through the Strait of Malacca.

By the 7th century, the harbors of various vassal states of Srivijaya lined both coasts of the Straits of Melaka.[16] Around this time, Srivijaya had established suzerainty over large areas of Sumatra, western Java, and much of the Malay Peninsula. Dominating the Malacca and Sunda straits, the empire controlled both the Spice Route traffic and local trade. It remained a formidable sea power until the 13th century. This spread the ethnic Malay culture throughout Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and western Borneo. A stronghold of Vajrayana Buddhism, Srivijaya attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia.
Picture: a ship carved on Borobudur
A series of Chola raids in the 11th century weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms based, like Kediri, on intensive agriculture rather than coastal and long distance trade. Srivijayan influence waned by the 11th century. The island was in frequent conflict with the Javanese kingdoms, first Singhasari and then Majapahit. Islam eventually made its way to the Aceh region of Sumatra, spreading its influence through contacts with Arabs and Indian traders. By the late 13th century, the kingdom of Pasai in northern Sumatra converted to Islam. At that time Srivijaya was briefly a tributary of the Khmer empire and later the Sukhothai kingdom[citation needed]. The last inscription dates to 1374, where a crown prince, Ananggavarman, is mentioned. Srivijaya ceased to exist by 1414, when Parameswara, the kingdom's last prince, converted to Islam and founded the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula.
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Malang

Malang town hall
Malang is the second largest city in East Java province, Indonesia. It has an ancient history dating back to the Mataram Kingdom. The city population at the present time is around 780,000. During the period of Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. The city is famous for its cool air and the surrounding country regions of Tumpang, Batu, Singosari, and Turen. People in East Java sometimes call it "Paris van East Java." Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis, and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.
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Indonesian and Malay legends

Although time frames for the establishment of Islam in Indonesian regions can be broadly determined, the historical primary sources cannot answer many specific questions, and considerable controversy surrounds the topic. Such sources don't explain why significant conversions of Indonesians to Islam did not begin until after several centuries of foreign Muslims visiting and living in Indonesia, nor do they adequately explain the origin and development of Indonesia's idiosyncratic strains of Islam, or how Islam came to be the dominant religion in Indonesia. To fill these gaps, many scholars turn to Malay and Indonesian legends surrounding Indonesian conversion to Islam. Ricklefs argues that although they are not reliable historical accounts of actual events, they are valuable in illuminating some of the events is through their shared insights into the nature of learning and magical powers, foreign origins and trade connections of the early teachers, and the conversion process that moved from the elite downwards. These also provide insight into how later generations of Indonesians view Islamisation. These sources include:

* Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai ("The Story of the kings of Pasai") an Old Malay text that tells how Islam came to "Samudra" (Pasai, northern Sumatra) where the first Indonesian Islamic state was founded.
* Sejarah Melayu ("Malay History") an Old Malay text, which like Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai tells the story of the conversion of Samudra, but also tells of the conversion of the King of Malacca.
* Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java") a generic name for a large number of manuscripts, in which the first Javanese conversions are attributed to the Wali Sanga ("nine saints").
* Sejarah Banten ("History of Banten") A Javanese text containing stories of conversion.

Of the texts mentioned here, the Malay texts describe the conversion process as a significant watershed, signified by formal and tangible signs of conversion such as circumcision, the Confession of Faith, and the adoption of an Arabic name. On the other hand, while magical events still play a prominent role in the Javanese accounts of Islamisation, such turning points of conversion as in the Malay texts are otherwise not as evident. This suggests a more absorptive process for the Javanese,[11] that is consistent with the significantly larger syncretic element in contemporary Javanese Islam in comparison to the relatively orthodox Islam of Sumatra and Malaysia.
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The spread of Islam in Indonesia

Islam is thought to have first been adopted by peoples of the Indonesian archipelago during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited the archipelago early in the Muslim era. By the end of the 16th century, Islam, through conversion, had surpassed Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of the peoples of Java and Sumatra. At this time, only Bali retained a Hindu-practising majority, and the eastern islands remained largely animist but would adopt Islam and Christianity in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

The spread of Islam was driven by increasing trade links outside of the archipelago; in general, traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were the first to adopt the new religion. Dominant kingdoms included Mataram in Central Java, and the sultanates of Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to the east. By the end of the thirteenth century, Islam had been established in North Sumatra; by the fourteenth in northeast Malaya, Brunei, the southern Philippines and among some courtiers of East Java; and the fifteenth in Malacca and other areas of the Malay Peninsula. Although it is known that the spread of Islam began in the west of the archipelago, the fragmentary evidence does not suggest a rolling wave of conversion through adjacent areas; rather, it suggests the process was complicated and slow.

Despite being one of the most significant developments in Indonesian history, historical evidence is fragmentary and generally uninformative such that understandings of the coming of Islam to Indonesia are limited; there is considerable debate amongst scholars about what conclusions can be drawn about the conversion of Indonesian peoples. The primary evidence, at least of the earlier stages of the process, are gravestones and a few travelers accounts, but these can only show that indigenous Muslims were in a certain place at a certain time. This evidence cannot explain more complicated matters such as how lifestyles were affected by the new religion or how deeply it affected societies. It cannot be assumed, for example, that because a ruler was known to be a Muslim, that that the process of Islamisation of that area was complete; rather the process was, and remains to this day, a continuous process in Indonesia
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Sunan Bayat

Sunan Bayat is often mentioned in the Javanese manuscripts of the Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java") as a Wali Sanga (nine saints), although the chronicles do not generally consider Bayat as one of the main sanga. The Wali Sanga are associated with establishing Islam as the dominant religion amongst the Javanese, the largest ethnic group in Indonesia.

Sunan Bayat is said to have been an employee of a female rice merchant.
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Friday, August 27, 2010

Indonesian National Awakening

In October 1908, the first nationalist movement was formed, Budi Utomo. On September 10, 1912, the first nationalist mass movement was formed--Sarekat Islam. By December 1912, Sarakat Islam had 93,000 members. The Dutch responded after the First World War with repressive measures. The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. In the post-World War I era, the Indonesian communists who were associated with the Third International started to usurp the nationalist movement. The repression of the nationalist movement led to many arrests, including Indonesia's first president, Sukarno (1901–70), who was imprisoned for political activities on December 29, 1929. Also arrested was Mohammad Hatta, first Vice-President of Indonesia. Additinally, Sutan Sjahrir, who later became the first Prime Minister of Indonesia, was arrested on this date.

In 1914 exiled Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet founded the Indies Social Democratic Association. Initially a small forum of Dutch socialists, it would later evolve into the Communist Party of Indonesia in 1924. In the post-World War I era, the Dutch strongly repressed all attempts at change. This repression led to a growth of the P.K.I. By December 1924, the P.K.I had a membership of 1,140.[35] One year later in 1925, the P.K.I. had grown to 3,000 members. In 1926 thru 1927, there was a P.K.I. led revolt against the Dutch colonialism and the harsh repression based on strikes of urban workers.[37] However, the strikes and the revolt was put down by the Dutch with some 13,000 nationalists and communists leaders arrested. Some 4,500 were given prison sentences.

Sukarno was released from prison in December 1931.[40] However, Sukarno was re-arrested again on August 1, 1933
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Early kingdoms

References to the Dvipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra appear in Sanskrit

writings from 200 BC.[citation needed] The earliest archeological relic discovered in Indonesia is

from the Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, where an early Hindu statue of Ganesha from the

1st century AD was found on the summit of Mount Raksa in Panaitan Island. There is also

archeological evidence of a kingdom in Sunda territory in West Java dating from the 2nd century,

and according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in

Batujaya, Karawang, West Java was also built around this time.
8th century Borobudur buddhist monument, Sailendra dynasty
Borobudur
A number of Hindu and Buddhist states flourished and then declined across Indonesia. By the time

of the European Renaissance, Java and Sumatra had already seen over a millennium of civilization

and two major empires. One such early kingdom was Tarumanagara, which flourished between 358 and

669 AD. Located in West Java close to modern-day Jakarta, its fifth-century king, Purnawarman,

established the earliest known inscriptions in Java, the Ciaruteun inscription located near Bogor.

On this monument, King Purnavarman inscribed his name and made an imprint of his footprints, as

well as his elephant's footprints. The accompanying inscription reads, "Here are the footprints of

King Purnavarman, the heroic conqueror of the world". This inscription is in Sanskrit and is still

clear after 1500 years. Purnawarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung

River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement. In his stone inscriptions,

Purnawarman associated himself with Vishnu, and Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project.
Three rough plinths dating from the beginning of the 4th century are found in Kutai, East

Kalimantan, near Mahakam River. The plinths bear an inscription in the Pallava script of India

reading "A gift to the Brahmin priests".

The political history of Indonesian archipelago during the seventh to 11th century was dominated

by Srivijaya based in Sumatra, also Sailendra that dominated central Java and constructed

Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. In fourteenth and fifteen centuries the

history is not well known due to scarcity of evidence. Two major states dominated this period;

Majapahit in East Java, the greatest of the pre-Islamic Indonesian states, and Malacca on the west

coast of the Malay Peninsula, arguably the greatest of the Muslim trading empires.
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Prehistory

Geologically the area of modern Indonesia appeared sometime around the Pleistocene period, when it was still linked with the Asian mainland. The archipelago formed during the thaw after the latest ice age. Fossilized remains of Homo erectness, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Homo sapience reached the region by around 45,000 years ago. Recent discoveries on the island of Flores were dubbed "Flores Man" (Homo florescence), a miniature hominid that grew only three feet tall, although whether this constitutes a separate species is still in dispute. Flores Man seems to have shared some islands with Java Man until only 10,000 years ago, when they became extinct.

Austronesian people form the majority of the modern population. They may have arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. Dong Son culture spread to Indonesia bringing with it techniques of wet-field rice cultivation, ritual buffalo sacrifice, bronze casting, megalithic practices, and ikat weaving methods. Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century CE.
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History of Indonesia

Indonesia is an architectonic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. The country's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade; trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. The area of Indonesia is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures, elasticities, and languages. The archipelago's landforms and climate significantly influenced agriculture and trade, and the formation of states.

Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, were originally from Taiwan and arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished bringing Hindu and Buddhist influences with it. The agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties subsequently thrived and declined in inland Java. The last significant non-Muslim kingdom, the Hindu Majapahit kingdom, flourished from the late 13th century, and its influence stretched over much of Indonesia. The earliest evidence of Islamised populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra; other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam which became the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences.

Europeans arrived in Indonesia from the 16th century seeking to monopolies the sources of valuable nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony. By the early 20th century Dutch dominance extended to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during WWII ended Dutch rule, and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, nationalist leader, Sukarno, declared independence and was appointed president. The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, but a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian independence.

An attempted coup in 1965 led to a violent army-led anti-communist purge in which over half a million people were killed. General Suharto politically out-manoeuvred President Sukarno, and was formally appointed president in March 1968. His New Order administration garnered the favour of the West whose investment in Indonesia was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. In the late 1990s, however, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian Financial Crisis which led to popular protests and Suharto's resignation on 21 May 1998. The Reformasi era following Suharto's resignation, has led to a strengthening of democratic processes, including a regional autonomy program, the secession of East Timor, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, natural disasters, and terrorism have slowed progress. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain problems in some areas.
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Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Environment and Natural Resources Nature in East Timor East Timor is not so rich in natural resources

Low rainfall and soil less productive. However, one of the natural resources that can be take advantage - if exploited for economic East Timor - are the sources of gas and oil earth contained in the Timor Gap. Sources of wealth oil and gas in the Timor Gap is considered commensurate
sources the most productive in the world. If exported, the products that have value sustainable, such as organic coffee, can also generate foreign exchange. Ecotourism is also one one industry can play a key role on East Timor's economic development.
East Timorese are in the eastern part of Timor island, the dramatic topography, and dominated by
Ramelau mountains. Different from the islands neighbors, on the island of Timor there is no volcano. Island Timor is part of the continent being cut off. The ground derived from limestone and clay that have marine metamorphosed, and that no land sesubur
derived from volcanic rock. Of course, infertility is an inherent problem in the lands tropics, because of decomposition of organic materials occurred relatively easily and quickly. Moreover, the land area East Timor is a steep mountain slope is very broad,
and also tend to be shallow soil. Therefore, very easily eroded. Erosion problem is compounded
by deforestation and grazing. On rainy season, when high rainfall fitting, many top soil is lost. Continuous erosion causes sedimentation of rivers and reservoirs.
Because it is located in a rain shadow, East Timor very dry. Watershed in East Timor
halved by the middle of the mountains of East Timor. Because of the narrowness of the island of Timor, the flow of the river is very short, and only a few rivers
flow throughout the year. The northern part is very dry, and characterized by savanna grasslands that every year burned. According to current estimates, formerly East Timor covered by forest, which he lost due to berkembnagnya human civilization, and their activities which included the burning of forests and forest logging for planting, hunting and grazing.
causing the loss of most of the original forest. Now, the forest is very thin in East Timor, and the vegetation consists of forests that were planted back, savanna and grassland. Various aspects of the ecology flora and fauna of East Timor still needs to be examined more information.
Fauna of East Timor have this level of endemism the highest in the Northeast region. Although
Thus, many species of animals in East Timor threatened with extinction, especially the kinds of animals rely on dwindling forests due logging. Various kinds of marine animals are also threatened
extinct. Most of the coastal regions of East Timor votes still original. Mangrove ecosystems are still in good condition, and many beaches surrounded by coral reefs. Stone these corals have important ecological functions. The coral reef is also the source of the fishing industry in coastal areas, and as a potential tourist objects, has a key role in the development of ecotourism industry. At this time in East Timor did not have waste management system. This is what is
The main environmental problems in the area urban areas. For example, the city of Dili does not have good dirty water management system, as well as systems for collection and disposal of sewage in Dili. Sewage illegally in Dili and cause the piling garbage in the surrounding some particular place. Therefore there is no system waste management, water under the ground-water sources drinking population of Dili - become contaminated. Sustainable development can not be considered
if the impacts of climate change are numerous. Climate change caused by global warming has caused many disasters that affect health and living conditions many people around world.
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Babad Tanah Jawi

Babad Tanah Jawi
Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java"), is a generic title for a large number of manuscripts written in Javanese language. Their arrangements and details vary, and no copies of any of the manuscripts are older than the eighteenth century.

Due to the scarcity and limitations of primary historical records, Babad Tanah Jawi, is one of a number of accounts of Indonesian legends that scholars use to help illuminate aspects of the spread of Islam in Indonesia, the dominant religion in the Indonesian archipelago since the sixteenth century.

The texts attribute the first Javanese conversions to Islam to the Wali Sanga ("nine saints"), although their names and relationships vary across the texts to the extent that perfect reduction and agreement between them is not possible. Although most of the manuscripts accept the convention of nine saints, a number list ten. These names commonly appear throughout the Babad Tanah Jawi.
Babad Tanah Jawi
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Tourism

Tuban is famous for its unique batik, locally known as Batik Gedog. Typical motifs are sea animals in dark colours such as blue and purple. There is a traditional Chinese temple named Klenteng by the beach, which is visited by many local tourists from Surabaya and environs, especially when Imlek, the Chinese New Year is celebrated.
Tuban is known as the "City of a Thousand Caves" since there are so many caves in the area, containing both stalagtites and stalagmites. Famous caves such as Goa Akbar and Goa Maharani (which contains sophisticated pre-formed statues believed to be natural by young and old) are located near the city. Besides, there are many recreational sites worth visiting, such as Goa Ngerong, a natural swimming pool called Pemandian Alam Bektiharjo, a waterfall named Air Terjun Nglirip, and the beach and pier for young couples, Pantai Boom.
Tuban is also well-known for its beverage tuak, strong palm wine taken from the Aren tree (called uwit bogor) served in large bamboo mugs called centak. Historically, the Tubanese used tuak as a strategic weapon against the colonial invaders, who were unable to fight when inebriated. Its non-alcoholic variety named Legen is drunk by women and children. Tuak and a kind of gin named arak are also served at traditional dance parties known as Tayuban or Sindiran, at which heavily made-up and padded female entertainers called Waranggono sing satirical songs and dance with paying males till the break of dawn, accompanied by a small gamelan orchestra. The dance movements are a vulgarised version of the Central Javanese palatial dance style known as Srimpi. One of the most notable of these entertainers, Nyi Sumini, was selected as one of five representatives to perform at Jakarta's Taman Mini Indonesia Indah park. One of Indonesia's most famous and prolific pop bands, Koes Plus, hailed from Tuban.
The most luxurious hotel in town, the Hotel Mustika was burnt to the ground when riots broke out after one of the candidates accused his opponents of having framed the outcome of the local elections to decide who would become the next regent or Bupati. The first female candidate in Tuban's history, Haeny Relawati, won and the instigator of the riots has been imprisoned.
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Story of Sunan Giri

According to the History Of Banten, a foreign holy man, Molana Usalam comes to Balambangan in the Eastern Salient of Java where Islam was not established until the eighteenth century. The daughter of Balambangan's ruler is critically ill, but recovers when Molana Usalam gives her betel nut to chew. She is given to Molana Usalam in marriage but Molana Usalam declines the offer when the princess refuses to adopt his religion of Islam. Moalana Usalam leaves the pregnant princess when he departs Balambangan. Her son is subsequently thown into the sea in a chest, similar to the story of Moses as found in the Bible and sura XX of the Qur'an. The chest was pulled out of the sea at Gresik and the boy is raised as a Muslim. He becomes the first Sunan of Giri.
Story of Sunan Giri
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History of Banten

History of Banten
("History of Banten") is a Javanese texts containing stories of conversion to Islam in Indonesia. The manuscripts of the chronicle date from the late nineteenth century, although two are known to be copies written from the originals in the 1730s and 1740s.

Due to the scarcity and limitations of primary historical records, History of banten, is one of a number of accounts of Indonesian legends that scholars use to help illuminate aspects of the spread of Islam in Indonesia, the dominant religion in the Indonesian archipelago since the sixteenth century. Similar to the In Indonesian Language Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the Land of Java"), History Of Banten, there are magical events, however, conversions are not specifically described nor is there emphasis on formal and tangible conversion rituals such as The Confession of Faith and circumcision.
History of Banten
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