Monday, July 26, 2010

Gresik History

In the days of the Majapahit Kingdom exactly Gresik 11th century had become a fairly large commercial airports. The experts also acknowledged Gresik history as an old trading town. Gresik, as well as start spreading the Islamic religion that has been proven through the inscription on the tomb of Fatimah Bint Learn numbered from the year 1082 AD Maimun

As the bustling city of Bandar visited merchants both from Chinese, Arabic, Gujarati, Calicut, Siam, Bengali, Campa, and others, the scholars, traders most active role in economic activity. Among the scholars who was well respected trader of Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Ali Hutomo or Raden Raden Pandita, Nyai Ageng Pinatih, and Sunan Giri.

Sheikh Maulana Malik Ibrahim, who was dubbed the Islamic pioneer of Java is also a carrier and spread Islam with Fatima bint Maimun.

Sunan Giri in recorded history in the book Van Geschieden Indonesia, Dr. H. J. de Graaf wrote: "... Then came time for King Satmata Claims yourself to the World. He is based in the hills near Gresik and became the most famous people of Sunan Giri Sunan that there ... "

Coronation as King of Sunan Giri Giri Kedaton with King Satmata degree can be interpreted as a milestone in the history of the birth of a new government in the kingdom dynasty Kedaton Giri. These have become the foundation anniversary of the establishment of the town of Gresik on the consideration of past history study, namely at the date of March 9, 1487 M or coincide with the date 12 Rabi-Beginning 897 H.

As an "Imperium Power" Kingdom Giri Kedaton even switch from one dynasty to another dynasty. Sunan Giri (1487 AD), Sunan Dalem, Sunan Sedomargi, Sunan Giri Kedaton Prapen until the last dynasty Prince Singosari (1743 AD) is a series of empires which had been instrumental in building the Kingdom of the government stake in Giri Kedaton.

Giri Kedaton in the End dynasty rule does not mean necessarily empty Gresik government. As the area "strategic" for the sea trade Gresik very attractive to "other authorities". Through the hands of Kyai Tumenggung Poesponegoro Gresik regency-style government of Mataram / Dutch pioneered. Poesponegoro which is the Regent Tandes / Gresik who subsequently built the first empire hereditary powers in Gresik. Style of the royal government is very strong with the two positions Regents, the Regents and Regent Kasepuhan Kanoman.

Originally the district was named in Surabaya, but entered the implementation of PP No. 38 Th. 1974 AD, all government activities began to gradually - gradually moved to Gresik and then changed its name to The Regency of Gresik in Gresik activity center.

Gresik Tourism Places

A number of tourism is a mainstay in Gresik Tomb of Maulana Malik Ibrahim (in Gapuro), Grave of Sunan Giri (Giri village), Grave of Sunan Prapen (grandson of Sunan Giri) in the village Klangonan, Tomb of Fatima bint Maimun, Grave Kanjeng Sepuh and taken cared of Sunan Kalijaga in Regions Mount Surowiti Panceng district in Gresik, all of which have been designated as cultural heritage and science by the East Java Provincial Government. Bawean island is a maritime tourism destination, which are nature reserves and wildlife reserves, beach tourism "white sand" in the village dalegan Panceng district that serves the entertainment atmosphere ocean view, play and bathe in the beach a safe and comfortable. Solo estuary (the longest river in Java) is an area that is just as interesting to visit.

in addition there is a tradition that has been long enough now that is still ongoing tradition [Rebo wekasan], [25 nights] and fish market.

Original Fine Food fine Gresik

Typical food is rice krawu Gresik, the brains of milk fish, Pudak, Jubung, Ayas, ubus, lard edge, and Bontosan Giri which only exists in the area around the tomb of Sunan Giri.

Gresik typical beverage is ice palm, Legen panceng, temu lawak, wedang Giras pokak and Coffee are available at many coffee shops are spread out almost every corners of the alley [Public Cangkruan]

Gresik economy

Gresik is known as one of the main industrial area in East Java. Some in the industry, among others, Semen Gresik Gresik, PKG, Nippon Paint, BHS-Tex, the timber industry / Plywood and Maspion. Gresik also a significant producer of fisheries, both marine fisheries, ponds, and inland fisheries. Gresik also have a Gas Power Plant and Steam capacity of 2200 MW. Between Gresik and Surabaya are connected by a toll road-Manyar Surabaya, which is connected with the Surabaya-Gempol toll road. Besides the economic community supported from Gresik many self-employed sector. One such songkok Industry, Craftsmen Bags, Gold & Silver Jewelry Craftsmen, Garment Industry (convection). In the northern city also gresik sidayu precisely in the city is the largest producer of swiftlet nests in Indonesia


Since the 11th century, Gresik became the trade center and port city which is visited by many nations, such as Chinese, Arabic, coarse and Gujarat. Gresik, as well as the first entrance of Islam in Java that brought Sheikh Maulana Malik Ibrahim Fatimah binti Maimun Together [1]. Gresik has become one of the major port and an important trading town since the 14th century, as well as a haven from the Moluccas ships to Sumatra and mainland Asia (including India and Persia). This continued until the era of the VOC.

In the era of VOC, Afdeeling consists of Gresik Regency, Gresik, Lamongan, and Sedayu District. Gresik city itself is on the main lane road heading Dandels. Surabaya is quite rapid developments forced the abolition of Gresik and Surabaya to join the District in 1934.

At the beginning of the Independence of Indonesia, Gresik kawedanan below is just a district of Surabaya. Gresik Cement Plant built in 1953 is the starting point of industrialization in Gresik. In 1974, the Surabaya district status as a successor was removed and Gresik regency, with the first regent H. Soeflan. Settlement area was widened, and even the seat of government was transferred to Regions Bunder, which is now considered New City Of Gresik ( GKB )


Gresik has known since the 11th century when it grew into the center of trade not only between islands, but has already expanded control every aspect of State. Bandar Sebaga, Gresik visited many Chinese traders, Arabic, Gujarati, Calicut, Siam, Bengali, Campa and others. Gresik began to appear prominently in the history of legislation since the development of Islam in Java land. Carrier and disseminator of Islam religion is none other than Maulana Malik Ibrahim Syech together Fatimah Bint Gresik Maimun into the early 11th century.
Since the birth and growth of cities began Gresk apart from the emergence of Islam which then spread throughout the island of Java, not apart from the name of Nyai Ageng Penatih, from Wealthy widow, who is also a syahbandar, this will then will we find the name of someone who later became the founding milestone Gresik city.
He was a baby home Blambangan (Banyuwangi regency), which dbuang into the sea by his parents. And found by sailors subordinates who Nyai Ageng Pinatih later named Jaka Ocean. After a bachelor degree Raden Paku who later became rulers based in Kedaton Giri, from this place he was later known as Sunan Giri calls. If Maulana Malik Ibrahim Syech contemporaries regarded as rulers, kings and ministers poles, then the Sunan Giri Sunan addition to his position as one or Guardian (spread Islam) is also regarded as the Emperor / King (ruling government)
Sunan Giri is known to be one of Wali Songo, also known as the king or sultan Aiun Satmoto Yaqin. Year where he was enthroned as ruler of the government (1487 AD) eventually serve as the birth day of Gresik. He ruled for 30 years and gresik followed by keturunanya to less than 200 years.
First served as regent who is Kyai Ngabehi Tumenggung Poesponegoro in 1617 saka, a body was buried in the complex at Jl. Pahlawan eat Poesponegoro Gresik, the same complex as the tomb of Maulana Malik Ibrahim Syech.
Originally the district was named District of Surabaya. Entering the implementation of PP No. 38 Year 1974, all government activities began to gradually transferred to Gresik and its name was later changed to the Regency of Gresik activity center in the town of Gresik
Gresik Regency which is the development of the sub-region (SWPB) can not be separated from the sub-region development activities Kertosusilo Gate (Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Lamongan). Including one part of the nine sub-regions of East Java development activities aimed at agriculture, industry, commerce, maritime, education and tourism industries.
With the enactment of Gresik as part of one of the areas Gerbangkertosusilo development and also as an industrial area, the town of Gresik became more popular and famous, not only in Persada archipelago, but also to the whole world that the mark of modern multi industrial with the emergence of be proud of the Indonesian nation

Tuesday, July 20, 2010

Nationalism movement

In 1905 the first nationalist movement, the Islamic Trade Union was formed and was followed in 1908 by the nationalist movements that followed, Budi Utomo. The Dutch responded after World War with repressive measures. Nationalist leaders came from small groups consisting of young professionals and students, which some of them have been educated in the Netherlands. Many of those who were imprisoned for political activities, including Indonesia's first president, Sukarno.

Colonization of the Dutch government

After the VOC went bankrupt in the late 18th century and after a short British rule under Thomas Stamford Raffles, the Dutch government took over ownership of the VOC in the year 1816. A successful rebellion was crushed in Java Java War in 1825-1830. After the year 1830 the compulsory system, known as cultuurstelsel in Dutch began to be applied. In this system, the residents were forced to plant the results of the plantation into the world market demand at the time, like tea, coffee etc.. Yield was then exported to foreign countries. These systems bring great wealth to the executive - both the Dutch and the Indonesian. This cultivation system is a government monopoly and was abolished in that time more freely after 1870.

In 1901 the Dutch adopted what they called the Ethical Policy (Dutch: a political Ethische), which included greater investment in education for indigenous people, and little political change. Under the governor-generals J.B. van Heutsz Dutch East Indies government to extend direct colonial rule throughout the Dutch East Indies, and thereby establish the foundation for the current state of Indonesia.

Colonization VOC

Starting in 1602 the Netherlands gradually became the ruler of what is now Indonesian territory, by exploiting divisions among the small kingdoms that had replaced Majapahit. The only one not affected is of Portuguese Timor, which remains controlled by Portugal until 1975 when integrated into Indonesian province called East Timor. The Dutch controlled Indonesia for nearly 350 years, except for a short period in which a small part of Indonesia ruled Britain after the Anglo-Dutch Java War and the period of Japanese occupation during World War II. When colonizing Indonesia, Netherlands East Indies Netherlands developed into one of the world's richest colonial power. 350 years of Dutch colonial rule for some people is a myth because the newly conquered territory of Aceh after the Netherlands close to bankruptcy.
VOC logo

In the 17th century the Dutch East Indies and 18 are not controlled directly by the Dutch government but by a trading company called the Dutch East Indies Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC). VOC has been given monopoly rights to trade and colonial activities in the area by the Dutch Parliament in 1602. Headquarters are in Batavia, now Jakarta.

VOC main purpose was to defend the monopoly of the spice trade in the archipelago. This is done through the use and threat of violence against the population on the island spice, and on people of non-Dutch who tried to trade with their resident. For example, when the population of the Banda Islands continued to sell seeds of nutmeg to the British merchants, the Dutch troops to kill or deport almost the entire population and then populating the islands with the servants or slaves who worked in the nutmeg plantations.

VOC became involved in the internal politics of Java at this time, and fought in several wars involving the leaders of Mataram and Banten.

Popular Resistance to the Portuguese Moluccas

The Portuguese first landed in Maluku in 1511. The next Portuguese arrival in 1513. However, Tertnate felt disadvantaged by the Portuguese because of their greed to obtain monopoly profits through the efforts of the spice trade.

In 1533, the Sultan of Ternate, Maluku calls upon all people to expel the Portuguese in the Moluccas. In 1570, the people of Ternate, which was led by Sultan Hairun can again take the fight against the Portuguese, but can be fooled by the Portuguese until it was killed in Fort Duurstede. Furthermore Baabullah led by the Sultan in 1574. Portuguese expelled who then lived on the island of Timor.

Acehnese people's resistance against the Portuguese

Beginning in 1554 until the year 1555, the Portuguese efforts failed because the Portuguese had harsh resistance from the people of Aceh. At the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda in power, the Kingdom of Aceh was attacked the Portuguese in Malacca in 1629.

Popular Resistance against Portuguese Malacca

In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by the Kingdom of Albuquerque attacked Malacca. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 have failed because of the power of Portuguese and more powerful weapons. In 1527, the fleet under the command of Demak Falatehan can competently Bantam, Suda Palm, and Cirebon. Can be destroyed by the Portuguese fleet Falatehan and he later changed the name of Sunda Kelapa to Jayakarta (Jakarta)

Triumph Portuguese Period in the archipelago

Period 1511-1526, over 15 years, the archipelago became an important maritime port for the Kingdom of Portugal, which regularly become a maritime route to get to the island of Sumatra, Java, Banda, and the Moluccas.

In 1511 the Portuguese defeated the kingdom of Malacca. Having successfully mastered Portuguese Malacca, in 1512 Antonio Afonso de Albuquerque send Albreu and Francisco Serrao to lead the fleet to find a way into the home of spices in the Moluccas. Throughout the trip, they stopped in Banten, Sundakalapa, and Cirebon. Skipper-skipper using Java, the fleet arrived in the Banda Islands, continue toward North Maluku until arriving at Ternate.

Portuguese presence in the waters and islands of Indonesia that have left traces of history that to this day is still maintained by local communities in the archipelago, particularly Flores, Solor and the Moluccas, in Jakarta Village monument located in the eastern part of Jakarta, between the time Cakung, Cilincing beach and soil Marunda.

Europeans first discovered the Moluccas is Portuguese, in the year 1512. At that time, two Portuguese fleet, each under the leadership of Anthony d'Abreu and Francisco Serau, landed in Banda Islands and Turtle Island. Once they make friends with residents and local lords - such as with Kingdom of Ternate on the island of Ternate, the Portuguese were given permission to establish a stronghold in Pikaoli, nor long Hitu Affairs, and Mamala Ambon.But Island spice trade relations did not last long , since the Portuguese introduced a system of monopoly at the same time doing the spread of Christianity. One is a famous missionary Francis Xavier. Arrived in Ambon, 14 February 1546, then traveled on to Ternate, arrived in 1547, and the tireless in their visits to the islands in the Maluku Islands to conduct religious propaganda. Portuguese Friendship and Ternate ended in 1570. Battle with Sultan Babullah during five years (1570-1575), allowed the Portuguese had to leave and expelled from the Tidore Ternate and Ambon.

Maluku people's resistance against the Portuguese, the Dutch used to set foot in the Moluccas. In 1605, the Dutch succeeded in forcing the Portuguese to give up its defense in Ambon to Steven van der Hagen and the Tidore to Sebastiansz Cornelisz. Likewise, the British fort at Kambelo, Seram Island, destroyed by the Dutch. Since then the Dutch overran large parts of Maluku. The position of the Dutch in the Moluccas getting stronger with the establishment of the VOC in 1602, and since then the Dutch became the sole ruler of the Moluccas. Under the leadership of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Chief Operating Officer of the VOC, the clove trade in the Moluccas sepunuh under the control of VOC for nearly 350 years. For this purpose, the VOC did not hesitate to drive out competitors, Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Even tens of thousands of people become victims of brutality VOC Maluku.

then they built a fort at Ternate in 1511, then in 1512 built the Citadel in Amurang North Sulawesi. Portuguese lost the war with Spain, the north Sulawesi area submitted in Spanish rule (1560 to 1660). Portuguese kingdom later united with the Kingdom of Spain. (Read the book: Portuguese Colonial History in Indonesia, by David DS Lumoindong). 17th-century merchant fleet came VOC (Dutch) who later managed to expel the Portuguese from Ternate, which then backwards and mastering Portuguese East Timor (since 1515).

Colonialism and Imperialism in Indonesia started to emerge around the 15th century, which begins with the landing of the Portuguese in Malacca and the Netherlands, led the nation Cornelis de Houtmen in the year 1596, to find the source of spices and trade.

Portuguese and Spanish colonization

Afonso (sometimes also written Alfonso) de Albuquerque. Because of this, which makes the Archipelago region then known by the Europeans and the beginning of centuries of colonization by the Portuguese along with other European nations, especially England and Holland.

From the Tagus River which empties into the Atlantic Ocean the Portuguese fleet that was sailing the Atlantic Ocean, may take a month to three months, past the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, towards the Straits of Malacca. From this exploration to proceed to the Maluku Islands in search of spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

"In the 16th century when the adventure had begun normally sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and the king before sailing through the River Tagus," said Teresa. Monastery of St. Dos Jeronimus or the Monastery of Jeronimos Monastery in the Portuguese language was established by King Manuel in 1502 in place when Vasco da Gama started the adventure to the east.

Portuguese Maritime Museum or Museu de Marinha mention it was founded by King Luis on July 22, 1863 to honor the Portuguese maritime history.

In addition to the statue in the park, painting of Afonso de Albuquerque is also a collection of the museum. Under the painting it says, "the Governor of India 1509-1515. The foundation stone of the Portuguese Empire in India, based in Ormuz, Goa, and Malacca. Pioneer of sea power policy as a central force kingdom. " Various Portuguese trade goods also exhibited at the museum, even a mound of pepper or pepper.

There are several motivations why the Portuguese Empire began an adventure to the east. Islamic historians and archaeologists in the book Rida Tjandrasasmita Indonesia-Portugal: Five Hundred Years of Historical Relationship (Cepesa, 2002), citing a number of historians, not to mention there is only one motivation of the Kingdom of Portuguese came to Asia. That expansion may be summarized in three words Portuguese language, namely feitoria, Fortaleza, and igreja. Its literal meaning is gold, glory, and churches or trade, military dominance, and the spread of Catholicism.

According to Rida, Albuquerque, the Portuguese governor of the Estado da India Secondly, the Portuguese Empire in Asia, was the main architect of the Portuguese expansion into Asia. From Goa he immediately led the expedition to Malacca and arrived there early in July 1511 brought 15 large and small ships and 600 soldiers. He and his troops defeated the Malacca August 10, 1511. Since then the Portuguese controlled the spice trade from Asia to Europe. After conquering Malacca, the Portuguese expedition led by Antonio de Abreu reached the Moluccas, the spice center.

Sunday, July 18, 2010

1965-bloody legacy of Stalinism

The Indonesian military coup of October 1-2, 1965 was the result of an operation that has long been carefully planned by the CIA and the military commanders who were trained by the U.S. military.

During the year 1965 disputes between classes increases. That year began with farmers seize ownership of large landowners and workers in enterprises of rubber and oil reserves owned by U.S. occupation action. President Sukarno has included military generals, led by General Nasution, and the leadership of the PKI into the cabinet to suppress this movement.

The PKI leadership managed to suppress the actions of the occupation, but the mass movement was becoming increasingly difficult to control. Anger growing mass Sell 23 farmers, with a penalty of 15 to 20 years, on charges of beating an army officer to death in defending themselves against a military operation to stop acts of land confiscation in Sumatra.

On the night of 30th September 1965, the CIA orchestrated provocation implemented. A group of middle officers, which at least one has a close connection with Suharto, detain and kill the army commander Lieutenant-General Ahmad Yani and five other top-level generals, and announced the formation of a Revolutionary Council.

The round up of the generals did not include two important people. The first was Suharto, who at the time was commander of the Army Strategic Reserve Command, composed of elite soldiers of the army. The rebels, led by Lieutenant-Colonel Luckily not the slightest attempt to capture or attack Suharto's command center in Jakarta, although he has the ability to implement this. Defence Minister, General Nasution, also escaped. He said as potential victims of this rebellion, but it can save themselves magically.

Fortunately, this is a revolt by a fake. Within 24 hours of Suharto could defeat the rebels, almost without a shot being fired, and took over control of the capital, backed by Nasution.

At the end of the week, which was formed by Suharto's command clears all pockets of resistance, and implement anti-communist massacre of the largest in history orchestrated by the U.S. Embassy and the CIA. Pentagon and CIA, which at that time was already fighting an undeclared war in Vietnam, Indonesia was determined to drown the revolution in blood.

U.S. diplomats and CIA officers, led by U.S. Ambassador to Indonesia, Marshall Green, working with carpenters, butchers Suharto to exterminate every member and supporter of the PKI is known.

In preparation for this coup, U.S. officials have spent at least two years to make these death lists provided to the armed forces with clear instructions: kill them all. Suharto's Son-fruit was ordered to report back on any number of killings have been carried out so that the names of their victims can be matched with names on the lists.

Some U.S. officers say the following-as well as recently what happened. "That was a big help to the army," said a former political officer at the U.S. Ambassador in Jakarta, Robert Martens. "They may kill many people and I might have blood on my hands, but that's not all bad."

"Sometime you have to strike hard at the right time."

Martens led the CIA and officials at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the U.S. embassy, which from the year 1962, compiled a detailed anyone who sat in the leadership of the PKI. That includes the names of PKI members of committees at the provincial, city and other local and union leaders, labor unions supported the PKI, and union-union women and youth.

The operation was masterminded by former CIA director William Colby, who at the time was director of CIA's East Asia Division, and with it being responsible for directing U.S. covert strategy in Asia. Colby said that seeking knowledge on PKI leadership was a workout for the Phoenix program in Vietnam, which attempted to exterminate supporters of the National Liberation Front in the late 1960s.

Colby admitted that checking the names on the lists of death was regarded as so important that it was overseen by the CIA's intelligence directorate in Washington. "We conclude that the treatment is cruel like that, PKI has experienced a major setback."

Deputy CIA station chief described with undisguised relish how hidden Suharto's headquarters in Jakarta provided the U.S. embassy report on the roundup and killing of PKI leaders. "We get a good account in Jakarta of who was covered. The army had a 'shooting list' of about 4.000 up to 5.000 people.

"They did not have enough troops to destroy them all, and some individuals were valuable for interrogation. The basic framework of their organization has collapsed almost immediately. We know what they're doing. We know that they will save some for their pretended courts, but Suharto and his advisors say if you keep them alive, you have to feed them. "

All this is done with the approval of the Green, which after it was sworn in as U.S. ambassador to Australia, where he played an important role in the dissolution of the Whitlam government in 1975.

At least one million people slaughtered in the six months that followed the coup. This is the estimate of a group of graduates of the University of Indonesia which is ruled by the army itself to inquire into the expansion of these killings.

Instigated and assisted by the army, youth groups from Muslim organizations and right wing doing the mass killings, especially in Central Java and East Java. There are reports that the Brantas River near Surabaya to be full of bodies up in certain places the river is "unstoppable corpse." Another report says that at Batu in East Java were so many killed in the small courtyard at a police station there until the bodies were buried under the cement.

On the island of Bali, which before was considered a stronghold of CPI, at least 35.000 people were affected at the beginning of 1966. There the Tamin, an elite commando Sukarno's Indonesian National Party, was the perpetrator killings. A special correspondent of the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung told of the corpses by the roadside or dumped into the excavation, excavation and about half of the villages were burned where farmers do not dare to leave their homes skeletons that have been charred.

In other areas, the defendants were forced to kill their friends to prove their loyalty. In big cities hunting-hunting anti-Chinese place. Workers and government employees who went on strike in protest over the events of this counter-revolutionary fired.

At least 250,000 workers and peasants were imprisoned in concentration camps. It is estimated that approximately 110 000 people still imprisoned as political prisoners by the end of 1969. Executions are still carried out till now, including several dozen since the 1980s. Recently, four prisoners, Johannes Surono Hadiwiyino, Safar Suryanto, Simon Peter Sulaeman and Norbertus Rohayan, sentenced to death nearly 25 years after the coup, a clear sign that the resurrection of the Suharto regime still scare Indonesian proletariat and poor peasants.

Saturday, July 17, 2010

Stalinist betrayal deepens

When hundreds of thousands of PKI members and supporters were hunted down and slaughtered, the PKI leadership and colleagues in the Kremlin, Beijing and the Communist Party of Australia (CPA) recommends PKI cadres, workers and peasants to not fight back, giving the green light for military generals to conduct mass executions.

The Stalinist deepened their reactionary positions that require people to subordinate their interests to the national bourgeoisie and Sukarno, which was used by Suharto as a puppet president, and for the armed forces.

On October 1, 1965, Sukarno and the PKI Aidit secretary-general responded to the formation of the Revolutionary Council by the "rebels" with the move to the Halim Air Force Base in Jakarta to seek protection.

On October 6, Sukarno called on people to create "national unity", namely the unity between the armed forces and the victims, and the cessation of violence. The Political Bureau of the Central Committee immediately urged all Party members and mass organizations to support the "leader of the Indonesian revolution" and not against the armed forces. This statement was reprinted in the newspaper CPA named "Tribune":

"After reviewing the appeal to the Supreme Commander of the armed forces of the Republic of Indonesia, the Indonesian revolutionary leader, President Sukarno, the Political Bureau of the Indonesian Communist Party Central Committee expressed full support for the appeal and appeals to all committees and party members and supporters, as well as revolutionary organizations mass led by members of the PKI to enable the implementation of this appeal. "

Meanwhile, Sukarno, "the leader of the Indonesian revolution", is working with the military repression was hoping to save his own neck. He ordered the extermination of all who are considered thoroughly involved in the "event" September 30 (the alleged coup attempt led by Colonel Lucky), and allowing the roundup and killing of PKI leaders. On October 15, he inaugurated the Suharto as army commander.

Five months later, on March 11, 1966, Sukarno, Suharto gave unlimited power. He ruled Suharto to take "appropriate steps" to restore order and to protect the personal safety and authority. Unlimited power was first used by Suharto to ban the PKI. In recognition of his services, was retained as titular president Sukarno's military dictatorship until March 1967.

The PKI leadership continues to demand that the masses to the authority of Sukarno and Suharto's regime. Aidit, who had fled, was captured and executed by the army on November 24, but his work continued by the Second Secretary True PKI. In an interview with a Japanese newspaper correspondent he emphasized:

"PKI is only recognized one head of state, supreme commander of one, a great leader of our revolution - President Sukarno ... President Sukarno to unite all the forces that will decide the fate of the people of Indonesia."

All members, Njoto, must "fully support the orders of President Sukarno and promised to implement all of that without a doubt ... we are trying to Party in all its ability to prevent a civil war."

In other words, while the carpenters, butchers military and their CIA advisers are not only the systematic liquidation of the PKI leaders, but also to sections of Indonesian society's most class-conscious, PKI cadres ordered them not to fight.

Bankruptcy and the decay theory of "two-stage" Stalinist, who insisted that people had to tie their fate to Sukarno and the national bourgeoisie can not be spelled out more clearly.

Betrayal of the PKI and supported by the Stalinist bureaucracies in Moscow and Beijing. The Kremlin blamed elements of the "rebels" and "adventurers" in the PKI for the defeat and called repeatedly for "unity" of the Indonesian revolution in his NASAKOM Sukarno.

On October 12, 1965, the leaders of the Soviet Union, Brezhnev, Mikoyan and Kosygin sent a special message to Sukarno: "We and our colleagues happy to hear that your health has improved ... We heard with great interest about your speech in radio to all the Indonesian people to remain calm and avoid the chaos ... This call will be understood in depth. "

In a Intercontinental Conference in Havana in February 1966, representatives of the Soviet Union tried with all their ability to avoid the condemnation of terror counter-revolution that is happening to the people of Indonesia. Establishment of praise they get from the Suharto regime. The Indonesian parliament passed a resolution on February 11, expressed "full recognition" for his efforts as representatives from Nepal, Mongolia, the Soviet Union and other countries at the Conference of Solidarity with the States of Africa, Asia and Latin America, which successfully neutralized efforts of the counter-revolutionary movements of so-called Sept. 30, and the leaders and their protectors, to mixed-hand in the domestic affairs of Indonesia. "

Similarly, the treachery of the Stalinist was very clear to parliament this military junta pet can say that the events arranged by the CIA on September 30 as an attempted counter-revolutionary!

The Stalinist in Beijing also wash their hands of the fate of the people of Indonesia. They even went to Jakarta for the World Conference against foreign bases and stand by without protest as their comrades from Indonesia were included in the conference room.

Friday, July 16, 2010

Military preparations begin

In 1956 the Indonesian army, with U.S. endorsement, have started their preparations for a military dictatorship to suppress the popular movement. In August, the West Java regional military commander ordered the arrest of the Minister for Foreign Affairs Ruslan Abdulgani on allegations of corruption. In November, Deputy Chief of the armed forces, Colonel Zulkifli Lubis, attempted unsuccessfully to seize control of Jakarta and overthrow the Sukarno government. The next month, there was a military coup in the Central and North Sumatra.

Sukarno in October 1956 to strengthen its position against the people and calm the armed forces by calling on political parties to disband. This call was later extended to an attempt to establish a National Council that includes all parties, including PKI, to rule the country. When the heads of military regions rejected the plan, and to take power of their provinces, Sukarno declared a state of emergency. Finally, the cabinet "non-party" newly formed, including two followers of the PKI.

As a reaction to the mass upsurge in December 1957, the U.S. imperialism immediately stepped up operations. The CIA has been active since the 1940s, spending millions to subsidize the elements of pro-American in the national bourgeoisie, especially the Indonesian Socialist Party, led Sumiro, colleagues Hatta, and the larger Islamic allies, led by Masyumi Syarifuddin Prawiranegara, with whom Hatta also has a close relationship.

Throughout the years 1957 and 1958 a series of rebellions secessionist and right-wing, aided by the CIA erupting on the island of Sumatra and the petroleum-rich Sulawesi, where PSI and Masyumi have dominant effect.

The first is Permesta military rebellion that began in March 1957 and lasted until the year 1958, which ended with a coup attempt supported by the CIA in February 1958.

United States Government provides substantial financial support, military advisers, weapons and a small air force consisting of bombers B-26, piloted the bases in Taiwan and the Philippines. U.S. Secretary of State openly even provide support for the rebels this right-wing. Carriers from the U.S. seventh fleet was sent to Singapor and when it seemed United would be direct intervention in Sumatra with a reason to protect employees and the Owner-Owner Caltex Oil.

The Indonesian military command had decided that the rebellion, failed to win mass support, must be stopped. Sukarno survived.

However, the armed forces become stronger. Over the next six years, the U.S. pours money into it, laying the foundation that allowed Suharto to start his climb to power after leading a military operation to take over West Papua in 1962.

Between 1959 and 1965 the United States provides $ 64 million in military aid to visual generals of the Indonesian military. According to reports in the Indonesian Youth Voice: "Before the end of 1960, the United States has equipped 43 battalions of the armed forces. Each year, U.S. military officers trained right-wing. Between 1956 and 1959, more than 200 high ranking officers have been trained in U.S., and hundreds of low-ranking officers are trained every year. Head of the Agency for International Development in America once said that U.S. aid, of course, not to support Sukarno and that the U.S. has trained a large number of army officers and civilians who would form Indonesian military units to create a "free country".

At the same time, Sukarno was running a system of "Guided Democracy" him. In July 1959 parliament was dissolved and Sukarno set a constitution under a presidential decree - once again with the full support of the PKI. He strengthened the hand of the armed forces by raising the generals of the military to important positions.

CPI welcomes "Guided Democracy" Sukarno with a warm and assuming that he has a mandate for the alliance between the conception of nationalism, Islam and communism, called NASAKOM.

In pursuit of their national front with Sukarno and the national bourgeoisie, the PKI leaders create illusions are very dangerous in the armed forces.

Only five years before the bloody defeat that happened to the workers and peasants at the hands of the armed forces, political directives stated by the leadership of the PKI SOBSI, trade union federation led by the PKI, in a statement on International Labor Day in May 1960:

"SOBSI enforce that the armed forces of the Republic was still a child of the revolution of the people ... and with that of the officers down to their subordinates and to the soldiers ... they will not engage in actions that betray the Republic. In addition, the president Sukarno, who sided with the people, have a great influence upon the leaders of the armed forces and he was not willing to be a military dictator. "

Colonial expropriation for centuries

Colonial Dutch colonized Indonesia for 350 years without mercy, plundering its natural, open the large plantations and extort people are cruel.
In 1940 there was only one doctor for every 60,000 people (compared to India, where the ratio is 1:6,000) and 2.400 graduates from high school. At the end of the Second World War, 93 percent of Indonesia's population is still illiterate.

At the beginning of the Nineteenth century, the development of the British bourgeoisie increasingly challenging the dominance of the Netherlands over this area. In 1800 the Dutch East Indies Company became bankrupt and the British take over the territory between the years 1811 and 1816. In 1824, the Treaty of London (London Agreement) dividing the region between them: the British got control over the bay of Malacca and the Netherlands remain master of the Indonesian archipelago.
Beginning of the Twentieth century, the new American imperialism began developing a challenge for the European colonial powers, especially after the occupation of the Philippines by the United States in the year 1898.

The United States is engaged in a trade war with the Dutch over oil and rubber. Standard Oil Company began to contest the monopoly of oil mining areas in Indonesia by the Royal Dutch company. In 1907, Royal Dutch and Shell merged to combat competition from the U.S.. Taking advantage of the situation of the First World War, Standard Oil began drilling in Central Java, and in the same year, U.S. companies began to master the rubber plantations. Goodyear Tyre and Rubber plantations open them and open the U.S. Rubber rubber plantations under single ownership of the largest in the world.

U.S. strategy in this area as it can be summarized by Senator William Beverage:

"The Philippines are ours forever ... and beyond the Philippines are an infinite Chinese market. We will not retreat from both. We will not abandon our responsibilities in the islands. We will not abandon our responsibilities in East Asia. We will not abandon our part in the mission of our nation, the belief in God, for civilization in this world ... we will go forward working ... with gratitude ... and gratitude to our Almighty God because He has chosen we as elected people, henceforth to lead in the regeneration of the world ... Our largest trade henceforth must be with Asia. North Pacific is our ocean ... and the Pacific is the future of sea trade. The power that rules the Pacific, is the strength conquer the world. And with the Philippines, that power is and will always be the American Republic. "

The rise of Japanese imperialism and its expansion into Korea, Manchuria and China lead to confrontation with U.S. imperialism on the mastery of these areas, which rose and erupted in the Pacific War in World War II. Japanese bourgeoisie's desire to usurp the authority of U.S., French and Dutch brought the importance of Indonesia, as a gateway to the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asian natural resources, into focus.

In 1942 the Dutch colonialists handed power over Indonesia to Japan, than to allow the Indonesian people fighting for independence. All the imperialist powers have good reason to fear that the oppressed people of Indonesia.
So far in 1914 the best representatives of the Indonesian workers have taken the teachings of Marxism when the Social Democratic Association Indies (Indies Social Democratic Association) was formed with the initiative of a Dutch communist Hendrik Seventieth. In 1921 it changed to the Indonesian Communist Party in response to the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.

PKI gain great authority among the people by leading the struggle against Dutch colonialism, including large movements of the first in Java and Sumatra in 1926 and 1927.
When the Chinese people are moving in a second Chinese Revolution in 1926-27, the workers and peasants, Indonesia is also engaged in a rebellion, led by the PKI. However, the Dutch colonial authorities managed to quell the revolts. They arrested 13,000 suspects, imprisoned and exiled 1.308 to 4.500 in a concentration camp in West Irian. The PKI was banned.

Thursday, July 15, 2010

The National Liberation Struggle Betrayed

At the end of the Second World War the oppressed peoples in Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, China and throughout Southeast Asia and the world moves forward in the revolutionary struggle to liberate themselves from imperialism.
At the same time, the working class in Europe and capitalist countries entered the struggles that convulse. It can only be extinguished through can't be leaved Soviet bureaucracy led by Stalin and the Stalinist parties worldwide. Betrayal of workers of France, Italy and Greece are primarily, and the establishment of regimes that are controlled by bureaucratic imperialism in Eastern Europe allowed to establish itself.

In the 1930s, the emergence of a privileged caste in the Soviet Union, which usurped political power from the Soviet proletariat, had destroyed the Communist parties. From the revolutionary internationalist parties, they turn into organizations of counter-revolutionary, suppressing the independent struggles of the working class.
In colonial countries, the Stalinist parties, including PKI, people systematically subordinated to the national bourgeoisie, led by figures such as Gandhi of India and Sukarno in Indonesia, which sought to reach settlements with the colonial powers to maintain capitalist power.

Agreements after the Second World War did not produce a true national liberation from imperialism, but the charge to the people of new agents of imperialist powers. This is the case in Indonesia where the national bourgeoisie, led by Sukarno, entered into treaties with the Dutch reactionary.
Sukarno, the son of a Javanese school teacher who comes from an aristocratic family, is a graduate architect, part of a very thin layer of the petty-bourgeois who is educated. He is chairman of the Indonesian Nationalist Party was formed in 1927 and suffered imprisonment and exile at the hands of the Dutch for national independence.

In the Second World War, Sukarno and the national bourgeoisie in collaboration with the Japanese occupation forces in the hope of getting a kind of national independence. In the final days of the war Sukarno, with the support of half-Japanese, declared an independent Republic of Indonesia on August 17, 1945.
Landing the leaders of the national bourgeoisie is not to lead a proletarian movement against imperialism, but to establish an administration and strengthen their position in bargaining with the Netherlands, which had no troops in the area.

But the Dutch reaction is waging a ruthless to suppress this new regime. They were ordered to remain in Indonesia under Japanese command until British troops could arrive. England and Japan and then use the Japanese soldiers to the ferocious resistance of the workers, youth and farmers of Indonesia. That way, all the imperialist powers united against the people of Indonesia.
When armed resistance broke out across Indonesia against the Dutch army, Sukarno, with the support of the PKI leadership, pursued a policy of compromise with the Netherlands and entered into in March 1947 Linggarjati. Dutch formally recognized Indonesian control over Java, Madura and Sumatra, and agreed to retire their troops. But in reality, the Dutch only use this as an opportunity to take a breath and strengthen and prepare for an attack on the brutality unparalleled in July and August 1947.

During this time, hundreds of thousands of workers and peasants joined or supported the PKI because they lost confidence in the bourgeois leaders and because they viewed the PKI as a revolutionary party. They were also inspired by the advances of the Communist Party of China Mao Tse Tung in the war against Chiang Kai-Shek. In the war against the Dutch, the workers and peasants occupied the land and the buildings repeatedly and mass trade unions was formed.

To cope with these developments, the reign of Sukarno, led by Amir Syarifuddin who was then Prime Minister (also a member of a secret PKI), signed the Renville Agreement in January 1948 (so called because it was signed on board the USS Renville). This agreement gives the Dutch power over half of the sugar factories in Java, 75 percent of Indonesian rubber, coffee plantations 65percent, 95 percent of tea and oil plantations in Sumatra. Moreover, the settlement which is mentioned diimposisi by the U.S. withdrawal of troops from guerrilla-controlled areas of the Netherlands and creating conditions for the dissolution of the "people's armed units", led by the PKI, and to the establishment of "National Armed Forces of Indonesia" led by Sukarno and his generals.

In 1948 a strike action against the Republican government, now headed by right-wing Vice-President Hatta as Prime Minister, demanding a parliamentary government. This action put out by Sukarno, who appealed for the creation of "national unity".
At the same time, the PKI leader Musso formerly exiled, returned from the Soviet Union and some important leaders of the Socialist Party of Indonesia and the Indonesian Labor Party stated that they were members of the PKI secret for years. This statement shows the base of support for PKI, which is much larger than previously estimated by the imperialist powers.

In the month of July 1948 the bourgeois leaders, including Sukarno and Hatta secret meetings with U.S. representatives at Bentham where the U.S. demanded, as payment of aid to government procurement hunting PKI members in the armed forces and government employees. Hatta, who also was Minister of Defence, was given $ 10 million to conduct a "red-hunting"
Two months after that in an attempt to destroy the PKI, Madiun done in Java. Some army officers, members of the PKI, was killed and others disappeared, after they opposed plans to disband the guerrilla units of armed forces who are on the front lines of war against the Dutch.

These killings caused a rebellion in Madiun in a bloody repressed by the regime of Sukarno. Prime Minister Hatta declared emergency law. Thousands of PKI members were killed, 36,000 imprisoned and PKI leader Musso and 11 other prominent leaders were sentenced to death.
U.S. Consul-General Liver good cabled his superiors in the U.S. that he had told Hatta that "this crisis gave Republican government the opportunity to demonstrate his determination to suppress communism."

to be Bigs his heart because of anti-communist pogrom, the Dutch launched a new military offensive in December 1948, Sukarno was arrested. But the widespread resistance forced the Dutch to surrender within six months.
Even so, the 1949 Round Table conference in The Hague charged the new betrayal-a betrayal of the people of Indonesia, involving concessions larger than the Indonesian bourgeoisie.

Sukarno's government agreed to take over the debts and ensure the protection of the colony's capital for the Dutch. The Dutch had West Irian and the Republic of Indonesia still have to work together with the Dutch imperialists in the Netherlands-Indonesian Union. The Sukarno government retains the colonial laws. New army was formed by combining the Dutch soldiers from Indonesia into the "National Army". In other words, apparatus and old colonial laws retained beneath the protective cover of parliamentary government in the new republic.

The PKI leadership supported the betrayal of the national liberation struggle and try to limit the working class and peasantry to struggle to a peaceful and "democratic". This was a continuation of the PKI's position during World War II when the leadership of the PKI (Communist Party of the Netherlands) following the directives of Stalin to cooperate with the Dutch against the Japanese imperialists and called for a "Commonwealth of independent Indonesia in the Netherlands". It remains a political PKI although during the struggle after the Second World War against the Dutch.

To the people of Indonesia, falsehoods "independence" under the domination of imperialism, the Netherlands, America and the world that goes more into focus. Natural results, key industries, plantations and financial power retained by foreign companies.
For example, 70 percent of sea traffic between the islands is still held by the Dutch company KPM and one of the largest Dutch bank, Netherlands Handel Maatschappij, holds 70 percent of all financial transactions of Indonesia.

According to the calculation of the Indonesian government, in the mid-1950s, the Dutch capital in Indonesia worth around $ U.S. 1 billion. Sukarno's government declared that even if they wanted to nationalize the Dutch possessions, they did not have enough money to indemnify the former colonial rulers. And to nationalize without compensation is communism.
Distrust of the people reflected in the 1955 elections when the number of seats held by the CPI increased from 17 to 39.
Within two years the mass movement would erupt in the seizure of factories, plantations, banks
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Tuesday, July 13, 2010

Happy Street Teacher Nations

Gus Dur's Death

Indonesian Leader 12/31/2009: Former President KH Abdurrahman Wahid, who called Gus Dur, died at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Wednesday (30/12) at 18:45. Indonesia and the world mourned. Former Chairman of the NU, the birth of Jombang, East Java, August 4, 1940 it was the teacher of the nation. Serving for the sake of the nation in diversity.

President Susilo BambangYudhoyono overnight express deep condolence on behalf of state, government, and privately by the death of Gus Dur, president of the Republic of Indonesia's 1999-2001 period. President asks people fly the flag at half mast for a week as a form of respect and mourning.

Accompanied by Vice President Boediono and some ministers, the President explained, the state will provide the highest tribute to the late Gus Dur with a state ceremony for the funeral which will be held in Jombang, Thursday, 31/12/2009, chaired by the President.

Departure bodies from funeral homes in Ciganjur, Thursday morning, led by Chairman of the Assembly Taufik Kiemas. The body was flown via Singapore and disamput with a military ceremony led by Army Commander.

Chairman Tim Joseph Misbah Doctors who treat the Gus Dur since December 26, 2009 to give information about the certainty of the death of Gus Dur has been in RSCM. Joseph, accompanied by Minister of Health Endang Rahayu Sedyaningsih.

According to Joseph, Gus Dur was hospitalized in a state of declining health after making a pilgrimage to the tomb of a number of scholars in East Java. Called, Wahid condition had improved during treatment. However, at about 11:30 Wednesday, 12/30, his health suddenly deteriorated related complications during this illness, namely kidney, diabetes, stroke, and heart. At 18:15, the team doctor said that Gus Dur's health is in critical condition. Doing intensive care by a team of doctors. But his life is not helped, and was pronounced dead at 6:45 p.m., Wednesday (30/12).

In critical condition, the President had met Gus Dur's wife, Mrs. Sinta Nuriyah Wahid. After that, go to the infirmary. Accompanied the President is the team doctor and husband Gus Dur's second daughter, Yenny Wahid, Dhohir Pharisees.

Guru Nation
Indonesian nation to lose teachers. He's a character who never tired to enlighten the mind of all components of the nation. Often many people do not understand the way of thinking, so it is often considered controversial. He was a defender of truth. Combatants diversity.

Teacher nation statesman. That Gus Dur has a strong commitment on the pluralism of Indonesia. A host of modern Islamic thought in the traditional spirit. So sometimes he is accused are too liberal in his mind about religion. Happy Street Teacher Nations

KH Abdurrahman Wahid (2001)

Teacher Social rudder Nation

He is familiarly called Gus Dur, the Guru Nation which often threw the controversial opinions. Even when he was President of the Republic to-four (20 October 1999-24 July 2001), he was not afraid to express something which he believes is true even though many people find it difficult to understand and even opposed it.

Although his voice was often invite controversy, but the sound was not rare in fact be the steering currents of social travel, politics and culture forward. He was a man who was not afraid to express something which he believed was right. In fact, she is also not afraid to express something different from the opinion of many people. If Disraeli, truth is indeed often seemed a radical and controversial.

Although opinions are not always right - not to mention often true in the eyes of others - is something that is difficult argue that many of the opinion that directs the flow of rail travel on a true nation in accordance with national objectives in the Preamble to the Constitution in 1945.

Opinions are often seen without a personal or group political interest. He dared to stand in front for the interests of others or other groups who his believe true. In fact, often as opposed to voice his own group. Also, even when he became president, that office like as brakes unable to express something. Apparently, he forgot the soft political office for the sake of something which he believed was right. So when he became president, many people consider it strange because often make remarks that invite controversy.

Not one month presidency, former NU chairman (1984-1999) was already sparked opinions ears redden most members of Parliament. In front of the legislative assembly, whose members again as a member of the Assembly, who had just picked it, Wahid said the members of the legislature's like kindergarten kids.

Shortly thereafter, he also said it would open trade relations with Israel, a country hated by many people in Indonesia. This statement is to invite a strong reaction from some parts of Islam.
Some time ago, he fired several members of his Unity Cabinet, including Hamzah Haz (Chairman of the United Development Party). Various policies and this makes it more real firing away from the conspiracy of political interests that allow him elected president.

At that time, the General Session in 1999, the Central Axis that fail to pass one of his own character to be president (President BJ Habibie, Amien Rais, Hamzah Haz, and Yusril Ihza Mahendra), Gus Dur's arm to be able to defeat Megawati Sukarno-daughter.

Gus Dur, a renowned expert in politics, deftly capturing this opportunity. So that Megawati's party won the elections which ultimately only get a vice chair. Gus Dur's election was, once again has shown controversial figure. Controversy in the political feasibility of democracy. Controversy about the physical condition of Gus Dur himself. But it must be admitted, that Gus Dur, with Genius and excellence that exceeds the capacity of many people! If it was not Gus Dur, it is very unlikely to happen.

Though not surprised when at first he was considered only as bait by a conspiracy of political interests. Because of the votes and the health condition of PKB, Gus Dur is considered highly unlikely to become president. However, with Gus Dur Genius play ball that rolled out of Central Axis (when it is a coalition of Islamic-based parties minus PKB) joined hands with Golkar, MPR rejected the accountability of President BJ Habibie. This is an ethical force BJ Habibie withdrew from the presidential nomination at the last second.

The night after the rejection of Habibie's accountability and before the morning of the presidential election, Golkar leaders and held a meeting at the Central Axis of Habibie's residence. They are looking for a replacement, BJ Habibie. The first alternative, as the General Chairman Akbar Tanjung, Golkar. Iramasuka group led by AA Bramuli refused. Then came the name of Hamzah Haz, Chairman of the PPP. Not considered strong against Megawati. Finally, the crack of dawn appeared the name of Amien Rais, Chairman of the PAN.

Amien is estimated to be able to win votes, reflecting the acquisition of voting in elections won by MPR Chairman Amien Rais. At that Gus Dur (played political tricks) supports Amien Rais compete with Matori Abdul Djalil (Chairman of PKB), which supported the PDIP. Finally, in a meeting at the house of President BJ Habibie, Amien Rais agreed to a presidential candidate, Amien records will first confirm it with Gus Dur.

However, before the confirmation was made, at the instigation of the PKB and approval Kyai Wahid had already officially registered Wahid's candidacy. Gus Dur's candidacy officially this shocking Central Axis (which often refer to nominate Gus Dur). Golkar and PDIP is also surprising even his own PSA. Once again, Gus Dur showed his Genius controversial and shocking.

Surprisingly changed the political map. Amien Rais diurungkan candidacy. Then came the name Yusril Ihza Mahendra (Chairman of the UN General Assembly) of the Central Axis faction formally nominate themselves to compete with Gus Dur and Megawati. The emergence of a faction of Megawati Yusril could make more optimistic about winning the election. But, then revoked Yusril candidacy after a meeting with Gus Dur. Wahid once again showed his class in politics.

Gus Dur from smaller parties (11%), defeating Megawati's party election winners (35%). Membership composition of the Assembly election results in 1999 that more 90 percent of men's Iaki, apparently reluctant to vote for Gus Dur, among others, for reasons of gender. A LlPI political observers call it a historical accident. Even Gus Dur himself was apparently feeling shocked and surprised by saying: "The blind kok elected as President".

The atmosphere outside the trial heats. Because the Assembly considered to have set aside the people's voice is reflected in the election. However, in this case, Gus Dur, once again, showed his prowess. He had a sniper tactics. He embraced Megawati. CLA formally nominate Megawati in the seizure of chairs Vice President, Hamzah Haz to compete with the Central Axis is supported. Megawati also won.

At that time, it seems that Gus Dur is very aware of his weaknesses. In his opening remarks the first few moments after he won the presidential election, he would like to thank PDIP Megawati and health factors that are not disputed fiscally.
At first many people are optimistic that the duo-Wahid to Megawati, who has long been 'brothers', will be lasting and strong. Moreover, the composition is supported by the Union Cabinet to accommodate almost all political forces and kepiawian Gus Dur in politics.

But as the saying goes: clever-clever squirrel jumped finally fell to the ground only. In the eyes of many people, self-confidence Wahid seems too excessive. He often asked their opinions and taking a controversial policy. Her vision is getting worse may also be used by the prompter in the vicinity. Gus Dur also often members of his cabinet by replacing arbitrary prerogative umbrella. These actions culminated in the replacement of ministers replacement Sukardi Admiral (PDIP-election winner in 1999) of State Owned Enterprises Ministry Position and Jusuf Kalla (Golkar, the second winner of the 1999 elections) from the position Minister of Industry, unbeknownst to Vice President Megawati and House of Representatives Speaker Akbar Tandjung.

House menginterplasi Gus Dur. Questioning the reasons for the dismissal of Admiral and Jusuf Kalla, who accused Wahid doing service learning. Allegation is not proved until the end of Gus Dur.

Since that time, Megawati began to clear at a distance from Gus Dur. Political support from the legislature to Gus Dur becomes very low. Wahid here seems negligent that in a democracy there can not be a president (executive) can lead without political support (which is represented in the legislature and the party).

Strangely, after that Gus Dur was even more loudly declare themselves have the support of the people. While most representatives in the Parliament and the Assembly continued to show a different attitude, no longer support Gus Dur.

Then Raise the head cases Buloggate and Bruneigate. Wahid's alleged involvement. This case led to the memorandum the House of Representatives. Memorandum II was ignored after Gus Dur, eventually the House asked the Assembly to hold a Special Session (SI) to hold the presidency.

Gus Dur to fight, action it deems the DPR and MPR violate the Constitution. He rejected the implementation of the SI-dissolve the Assembly and decreed the DPR and MPR. But Wahid's decree is not supported. Only the power of PKB and PDKB (Love the Nation Democratic Party) who provide support. In fact, since the decree, the Assembly to accelerate the implementation of the SI on July 23, 2001. Gus Dur, eventually lost his position as the fourth president after he refused to provide accountability in SI MPR. And Vice President Megawati, was appointed president on July 24, 2001.

After the SI-MPR, Wahid as Chairman of the Consultative Council PKB Matori Abdul Djalil also sacked from his post as Chairman of the PKB. This action then responded by holding a Conference PKB Matori who gave birth to the emergence of two stewardship of PKB, which was then popularly called PKB Stone Writing (led Matori) and PKB Brass (the leadership of Gus Dur-Alwi Sihab). Stewardship of this PKB twins should continue to trial despite ongoing efforts to reconcile as well.

Founding Fathers
After no longer served as president, Gus Dur's return to the original life. Although already a partisan, in his capacity as Chairman of the Board Consultative decelerator and PKB, he seeks re-emerged as the Father of the Nation. Like the figures before assuming the presidency.

Previously, Gus Dur is the Chairman of the Nahdlatul Ulama (NU), Indonesia's largest Islamic organization with members around 38 million people. But he was not a sectarian. He is a statesman. Not infrequently he is against anyone who even his own supporters mass in stating a truth. He was a prominent nationalist-minded Muslims.

Gus Dur often spoke out strongly against sectarian religious politics. Stance is often placed in difficult positions, against other Islamic leaders in Indonesia. Such as the establishment of Indonesian Muslim Intellectuals Association (ICMI), which is chaired by President BJ Habibie, Gus Dur openly opposed. He calls the nation ICMI will cause problems later in life, which in less than ten years, it was the same statement can be proven true or not. Then, he founded the Forum for Democracy as a counterweight ICMI.

Although he recognized large part because of NU, his political vision is believed to be close associates as exceeding the organization's interests, sometimes even beyond the interests of Indonesia. This was reflected in his willingness to receive a position at Shimon Peres Peace Center, and when he proposed to establish relations with Israel.
In the Order, as Suharto's very powerful, Gus Dur, is known as one of the slippery character to master. Even Gus Dur can utilize the Family Sister Tutut Sandalwood with invites to visit the huts around the pesantren. Gus Dur also took some time to visit after the resignation of President Soeharto.

Wahid was born August 4, 1940 at Denanyar, Jombang, East Java, Indonesia's influential Muslim families. His father, Wahid Hasyim, is a former Minister of Religious Affairs in 1945. His grandfather, Hasyim Ashari, is one of the largest Muslim leaders at the turn of a century ago in 2000. Gus Dur to follow family tradition by studying in many pesantren. Wahid's name is taken from the tradition in the region, where locals call him a son from an elite family as 'Gus'.

He also briefly studied literature and social sciences at the Faculty of Letters, University of Baghdad, Iraq. Days of lectures with the emergence of the power of the Baath party, Saddam Hussein's socialist party, which attracted many followers. With this background, he also briefly rumored as a 'figure of smell left' during the New Order.

From Baghdad, he returned to Indonesia in 1974 and began a career as a 'scholar' by writing several columns in various national mass media. In the late 70s, the husband of Sinta Nuriyah, it has successfully established himself as one of the many scholars of Indonesia's most famous and best-selling also as a public speaker.

Names Wahid was elected as the more protruding after NU chairman, in Situbondo NU Congress in 1984. At that time the relationship was intimate with the government NU-mesranya. Although the next trip, Gus Dur is not always compromise with the government. For example, when the government plans to set up Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in the Muria, Gus Dur was against it. Similarly, when Habibie, ICMI established, entered into a fight with Gus Dur founded the Forum for Democracy.

Gus Dur was diligent criticism pertained to the government. Criticism for long lead Pak Harto uncomfortable. Peak occurs at NU in Cipasung Mukhtamar 1994. Wahid's government has tried to tackle. But Gus Dur and equipment selected for the second period. This was expressed from didn't wanna President Suharto received Gus Dur and other NU administrators.

One of the gait of the most prominent Wahid while leading NU, was when he brought it back to khittahnya organizations, out of practical politics in 1984. Although, in 1999, he also brought NU back into politics although in a different format because it is done through the formation of the PKB, the party which is always referred to as 'child of' NU.

It is also known as a defender of the true figure. Is it minority or majority. Defense to minority groups perceived as a courageous thing. This reputation is so prominent in the latter years of the New Order era. Once the prominence of this role so that he even accused more closely with minority groups rather than the Muslim majority community itself. Though he is a scholar who by some congregation even been regarded as a guardian.

In early 1998 he suffered a stroke. But team doctors managed to save him. However, as a result, his eyesight worsened. At the time he was sworn in as president, he has described the Western mass media as 'almost blind.' Besides being a stroke, his health problems allegedly caused by hereditary factor also caused a close blood relationship between the parents.

He is also a keen observer football power analysis. In fact, after his eyesight completely disrupted, the World Cup in June 2002 and then, he was still too excited to comment on the projected winner.

Besides being an idol for many people, Gus Dur also become an idol for the fourth daughter: Qortrunnada Munawarah Alisa (Lisa), Zannuba Arifah (Venny), Anisa Hayatunufus (nufus) and Inayah Wulandari (Ina). This is reflected in the recognition of his eldest daughter Lisa. Lisa said, the figure of NGO leaders Wahid declined him, declined to Venny columnist talent, his castrate on nufus and egalitarian nature of Ina.

Presidential Candidates

Chairman of the Board Suryo PKB, PKB nominated a presidential ticket with Marwah Daud Ibrahim as vice presidential candidate presidential election in 2004.

But this pair is not passed by the General Elections Commission (KPU) due to Gus Dur assessed do not meet the requirements of the spiritual and the physical ability to fulfill his duties as president, according to health inspection teams Indonesian Doctors Association. Due to the refusal Commission (22/05/2004) This, Wahid do various legal efforts, among others, sued the Commission in criminal and civil court to sue for loss of Rp 1 trillion, reported to Panwaslu, after a previous judicial review to the Supreme Court and Constitutional Court . He also will be determined outside the system if efforts are not successful candidacy.

His name was entered in the general election presidential nomination in 2004, as the only presidential candidates from the PKB. Mentioned that he still had the support of the Master. He himself confirmed this in his statement several times.

But some politicians and political observers expect, Gus Dur can optimize its role as one of the 'father of nation'.

By not running for president, he as the 'father of nation' plus a control holder (most influential) in the PSA, can provide a significant influence on the way democracy in this country. Political tricks that are often unexpected, expected to be highly influential on the national stage poltik.

Ad Stars Wiranto-Wahid

After not qualify to be presidential, he appeared as an ad-vice presidential partner Golkar Party Wiranto-Wahid Solahudin. According to Wiranto-Solahudin more electable than any other vice-presidential partner. He felt sure that Wiranto would uphold democracy in accordance with the speeches Wiranto. Semenatara Solahudin own biological sister is the person referred to escape the net because it proved the feasibility test before becoming Vice Chairman of National Human Rights Commission.

Gus Dur to be a star appearance Wiranto ads, it seems increasingly asserted its position that is often controversial. As if he did not remember the position of the Armed Forces Commander Wiranto as the time of the riots in May 1998 and Semanggi tragedy I and II. In this turmoil and tragedy, not a single military-police officers Terrace which claimed responsibility, both legally and morally.

Apparently Gus Dur is not affected to the many allegations of involvement Wiranto, former military chief and a former aide of President Soeharto, in a few cases of human rights abuses and riots in May 1998 and the deployment Pamswakarsa. While most people feel have not received any explanation from Wiranto responsible about the various cases.

Semenara it, Wiranto himself had sworn an oath to be elected by the people in his ads in the presidential election. Wiranto himself seems to not feel like a failure when it served as military chief when the country was hit by riots where very horrible.

TokohIndonesia Dotcom (Encyclopedia of People of Indonesia)
Undergoing MyBlogLog Verification

The Proclaimers

Mohammad Hatta

Mohammad Hatta was born on August 12, 1902 in Bukittinggi. In this lovely small town of Bung Hatta mother was raised in a family environment. His father, Haji Mohammad Djamil, died when eight months old Hatta. From his mother, Hatta had six sisters. He is the boys only.

Since sitting on MULO in the city of Padang, he has been interested in the movement. Since the year 1916, arising from youth associations, such as Jong Java, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Minahasa. and Jong Ambon. Hatta went into clubs Jong Sumatranen Bond.

As treasurer Jong Sumatranen Bond, he realized the importance of financial sense for his club. But good financial resources from member contributions and donations from outside only if its members may well have a sense of responsibility and discipline. Sense of responsibility and discipline further characterize the properties of Mohammad Hatta.

The period of study in the Netherlands
In 1921 Hatta arrived in Holland to study at the Handels Hoge School in Rotterdam. He is registered as a member of the Indische Vereniging. In 1922, the association was renamed Indonesische Vereniging. Joiner who refuse to cooperate with the Dutch was then renamed again to the Association of Indonesia (PI).

Hatta also see to it that the magazine assembly, Poetra Indies, published on a regular basis as a basis antaranggota binding. In 1924 the magazine changed its name to Indonesia Merdeka.

Hatta passing examinations Handels Economie (economy trade) in 1923. Originally he intended to take the exam doctoral of science degree in economics at the end of 1925. Therefore, in 1924 he was active in the non-PI. But when it opened a new department, which is state law and administrative law. Hatta also entered the majors were encouraged by the great interest in politics.

Extension of his study plan that allows Hatta was elected Chairman of the PI on January 17, 1926. On that occasion, she said her inauguration speech, entitled "Wereldbouw Economische en Machtstegenstellingen" - World Economic Structure and the Conflicts of power. He tried to analyze the structure of world economy and based on it, pointing to a non-cooperative foundation of wisdom.

Since the year 1926 until 1930, successive Hatta was elected Chairman of the PI. Under his leadership, the PI developed from ordinary student associations into political organizations that influence the way people in Indonesian politics. So that finally recognized by the Association of Political Pemufakatan Indonesian Nationhood (PPPI) PI as outposts of the national movements in Europe.

PI doing active propaganda outside the Netherlands. Almost every international congress in Europe enter, and accept these associations. During that time, almost always Hatta himself who led the delegations.

In 1926, with the aim of introducing the name "Indonesia", Hatta, led a delegation to the Democratic Congress for Peace International in Bierville, France. Without much opposition, "Indonesia" was officially recognized by congress. The name "Indonesia" to mention the Dutch East Indies when it was really well known among international organizations.

Hatta, Indonesian nationalist movement had important experience in the League Against Imperialism and Colonial Oppression, an international congress held in Brussels on 10-15 February 1927. At this congress Hatta acquainted with the leaders of the movement of workers, such as G. Fimmen Ledebour and Edo, as well as figures who later became statesmen in Asia and Africa such as Jawaharlal Nehru (India), Hafiz Ramadan Bey (Egypt), and Senghor (Africa). His personal friendship with Nehru initiated since that time.

In 1927 also, Hatta and Nehru invited to give lectures for the "International Women's League for Peace and Freedom" in Gland, Switzerland. Hatta lecture title L 'Indonesie et son Probleme de I' Independence (Indonesia and the Problems of Independence).

Together with St. Nazir. Pamontjak, Sastroamijoyo, and Abdul Madjid Djojoadiningrat, Hatta was jailed for five and a half months. On March 22, 1928, the tribunal in The Hague court freed four of all charges. In a historic session, Hatta defense argued that amazing speech, which was later published as a brochure with the name "Indonesia vrij", and then translated into Indonesian as a book with a title of independent Indonesia.

Between the years 1930-1931, Hatta focus to his studies and writing articles for magazines and Daulat Ra'jat sometimes De Socialist. He planned to end his study in mid 1932.

Return to the Motherland
In July 1932, Hatta was successfully completed his studies in Holland and a month later he arrived in Jakarta. Between late 1932 and 1933, the main bustle of Hatta is written numerous articles and economic politics to Daulat Ra'jat and perform a variety of political activities, especially education of political cadres in the Party of National Education of Indonesia. The principle of non-cooperation is always emphasized to his cadres.

Hatta harsh reaction against Sukarno's attitude in relation to the holder by the Dutch colonial government, which ended with the removal of Sukarno to Ende, Flores, look at his writings in Daulat Ra'jat, entitled "Soekarno Arrested" (August 10, 1933), "Tragedy Sukarno "(30 November 1933), and" Attitude Leaders "(December 10, 1933).

In February 1934, after Sukarno exiled to Ende, the Dutch colonial government turned its attention to the Party of National Education of Indonesia. Party leaders of the Indonesian National Education was arrested and later exiled to Digoel. Totaling seven people. From the Jakarta office is Mohammad Hatta, Sutan Sjahrir, and Bondan. From offices in Bandung: Maskun Sumadiredja, Burhanuddin, delight, and Murwoto. Prior to Digoel, they were imprisoned for nearly a year in jail and Cipinang Glodok, Jakarta. In prison Glodok, Hatta wrote a book titled "The Economic Crisis and Capitalism."

The Exile
In January 1935, Hatta and his friends arrived in Tanah Merah, Digoel (Papua). Heads of government there, Captain van Langen, offers two options: working for the colonial government with a wage 40 cents a day in the hope that will be sent back to the area of origin, or be discarded by receiving food in kind, with no hope to be repatriated to the homeland . Hatta said, when he would work for the colonial government when he was still in Jakarta, would have become a great man with a big salary as well. So he's not necessary to Tanah Merah to become a coolie with a salary of 40 cents a day.

In exile, Hatta regularly writes articles for newspapers Landscape. Honorarium enough to live in Tanah Merah and he can also help his friends. Digoel filled his home in his books specially brought in from Jakarta, as many as 16 boxes. Thus, Hatta has enough material to give a lesson to his friends in exile about economics, history, and philosophy. Collection of materials that lesson later recorded with titles such as, "Introduction to the Science and the Way of Knowledge" and "Natural Greek Thought." (Four volumes).

In December 1935, Captain Wiarda, substitute van Langen, announced that the dump was moved to Hatta and Sjahrir Bandaneira. In January 1936 they went to Bandaneira. They met Dr. And Mr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo. Iwa Kusumasumantri. In Bandaneira, Hatta and Sjahrir can mingle freely with the locals and give lessons to local children in the fields of history, tatabuku, politics, and so on Iain.

Back to Java: The Japanese Occupation
On February 3, 1942, Hatta and Sjahrir brought to Sukabumi. On March 9, 1942, the Government of the Netherlands East Indies to the Japanese surrender, and on March 22, 1942, Hatta and Sjahrir taken to Jakarta.

During the Japanese occupation, Hatta asked to work together as an adviser. Hatta said about the ideals of the Indonesian nation to independence, and he asked if Japan will colonize Indonesia? Daily temporary head of government, Major-General Harada. replied that Japan would not invade. But Hatta know, that the independence of Indonesia in Japan is different from understanding its own terms. Recognition of Independence of Indonesia by Japan's need for Hatta as a weapon against the Allies in the future. When the Japanese fascists want to admit it, whether democratic allies who would not? That's why the Japanese always slot to give such recognition, the newly acquired in September 1944.

During the Japanese occupation period, Hatta did not talk much. But speech that is spoken in the Field Ikada (now Independence Square) on the date of December 8, 1942 appall many circles. He said, "Indonesia apart from the Dutch colonial imperialism. And therefore he did not want to be a colony again. Young and old is as sharp-sharp taste. For the youth of Indonesia, he  lover to see Indonesia sank into the ocean rather than have it as a colony of people back. "

In early August 1945, committee investigators Efforts Preparation of Indonesian Independence replaced by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence, with Sukarno as Chairman and Mohammad Hatta as Vice Chairman. Its members consist of representatives of regions throughout Indonesia, Java and nine of twelve people from outside the island of Java.

On August 16, 1945 night, the Preparatory Committee to prepare the proclamation of Indonesian Independence in a meeting at the house of Admiral Maeda (JI Imam Bonjol, now), which ended at 3:00 am the next morning. Small committee consisting of five persons, namely Soekarno, Hatta, Soebardjo, Soekarni, and Sanam Malik broke away into a room to arrange the text of the proclamation of independence. Soekarno Hatta requested proclamation compile a concise text. Soekarno Hatta suggested that writing words that Learner After the work was completed. they took him to the living room, where other members waiting.

Soekarni suggested that the manuscript proclamation signed by two persons only, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta. All in attendance welcomed by boisterous applause.

Date August 17, 1945, Indonesia's independence was proclaimed by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian nation, just at 10:00 AM at East 56th Street Pengangsaan Jakarta.

Dated August 18, 1945, Ir Soekarno was appointed as President of the Republic of Indonesia and Drs. Mohammad Hatta was appointed Deputy President of the Republic of Indonesia. Soekardjo Wijopranoto suggested that the President and Vice President must be a single duumvirate.

Maintaining the period of Indonesian Independence
Indonesia should retain its independence from the Dutch government efforts to colonize again. The Government of the Republic of Indonesia moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. Twice negotiations with the Dutch produce Linggajati and Reville Agreement, but it always ended in failure due to cheating the Dutch.

To seek support from abroad, in July I947, Bung Hatta went to India to meet Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. disguised as a co-pilot, named Abdullah (Biju Patnaik was the pilot who later became Minister of Steel India in the administration of Prime Minister Morarji Desai). Nehru promised, India can help Indonesia with a resolution to the UN protest and the Netherlands in order to be punished.

Difficulties and threats faced by turns. September 1948 PKI rebellion. December 19, 1948, the Dutch again launched a second aggression. President and Vice President captured and exiled to Bangka. But the struggle of the Indonesian people to defend the independence continue raging everywhere. Great Commander Soediman continue to lead the armed struggle.

On December 27, 1949 in The Hague, Bung Hatta, who chaired the Delegation of Indonesia in the Round Table Conference to receive the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty of Queen Juliana.

Bung Hatta was also a time Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia States stands. Furthermore, after the RIS to the Unitary State of Republic of Indonesia, Bung Hatta returned to the Vice President.

Year Period 1950-1956
During the Vice-President, Bung Hatta remain active giving lectures in various institutions of higher education. He also continued to write various essays and books on economic and scientific cooperation. He is also active in guiding the cooperative movement to implement the ideals in the conception of the economy. Dated July 12, 1951, Bung Hatta radio speech to welcome the Day of Cooperatives in Indonesia. Because much is Bung Hatta activities in the cooperative movement, on July 17, 1953 he was appointed as the Father of Indonesian Cooperative Cooperatives Congress on Indonesia in Bandung. Bung Hatta thoughts about cooperatives, among others, outlined in his book entitled Building a Cooperative and Cooperative Building (1971).

In 1955, Bung Hatta announced that if the Constituent parliament and the people's choice has been formed, he would resign as Vice President. His intention to resign was knows through a letter to the chairman of Parliament, Mr. Sartono. Copies of the letter sent to President Sukarno. After the Constituent Assembly was officially opened by the President, Vice-President Hatta told the Speaker of the Parliament that on l December 1956 he would put his position as Vice President of RI. President Sukarno tried to dissuade him, but remained on the establishment of Bung Hatta.

On date 27 November 1956, he received an honorary degree of Doctor Honors Causa academic in legal studies from the University of Gajah Mada in Yoyakarta. On that occasion, Bung Hatta inaugural speech, entitled "Past and Coming".

Bung Hatta After putting his position as Vice President of the Republic, also earned several academic degrees from various universities. Padjadjaran University in Bandung confirmed Bung Hatta as a political science professor in the economy. Hasanuddin University in Ujung Pandang to give the title of Doctor Honoris Causa in Economics. University of Indonesia provide a degree of Doctor Honor-is Causal in the field of legal science. Bung Hatta inaugural speech entitled "Towards the Rule of Law".

In 1960, Bung Hatta wrote "Democracy We" in the banner of People magazine. A famous for writing that highlight the views and thoughts of Bung Hatta on the development of democracy in Indonesia at that time.

During the New Order government, Bung Hatta is more of elder statesman for the nation rather than a politician.

Rahmi Hatta Rachim married on November l8 Megamendung 1945 in the village, Bogor, West Java. They have three daughters, namely Meutia Farida, Gemala Rabi'a, and Halide Nuriah. The two oldest daughters are married. The first was by Dr. Sri-Edi Swasono and the second with Drs. Mohammad Chalil Baridjambek. Hatta had witnessed the birth of two grandsons, namely Sri Juwita Hanum Baridjambek Swasono and Mohammad Athar.

On August 15, 1972, President Suharto told the Bung Hatta grace of the highest state of alert of Honor 'Star of the Republic of Indonesia Class I "in a state ceremony at the State Palace.
Bung Hatta, Proclaimers of Independence and the First Vice-President of the Republic of Indonesia, died on March 14, 1980 at Tjipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Dr., Singapore, at the age of 77 years and was interred in the Land TPU driver on March 15, 1980.

TokohIndonesia Dotcom (Encyclopedia of People of Indonesia), from the Tomb of Bung Hatta Books 1982 and variety of sources)