Tuesday, July 13, 2010

The Proclaimers

Mohammad Hatta

Mohammad Hatta was born on August 12, 1902 in Bukittinggi. In this lovely small town of Bung Hatta mother was raised in a family environment. His father, Haji Mohammad Djamil, died when eight months old Hatta. From his mother, Hatta had six sisters. He is the boys only.

Since sitting on MULO in the city of Padang, he has been interested in the movement. Since the year 1916, arising from youth associations, such as Jong Java, Jong Sumatranen Bond, Jong Minahasa. and Jong Ambon. Hatta went into clubs Jong Sumatranen Bond.

As treasurer Jong Sumatranen Bond, he realized the importance of financial sense for his club. But good financial resources from member contributions and donations from outside only if its members may well have a sense of responsibility and discipline. Sense of responsibility and discipline further characterize the properties of Mohammad Hatta.

The period of study in the Netherlands
In 1921 Hatta arrived in Holland to study at the Handels Hoge School in Rotterdam. He is registered as a member of the Indische Vereniging. In 1922, the association was renamed Indonesische Vereniging. Joiner who refuse to cooperate with the Dutch was then renamed again to the Association of Indonesia (PI).

Hatta also see to it that the magazine assembly, Poetra Indies, published on a regular basis as a basis antaranggota binding. In 1924 the magazine changed its name to Indonesia Merdeka.

Hatta passing examinations Handels Economie (economy trade) in 1923. Originally he intended to take the exam doctoral of science degree in economics at the end of 1925. Therefore, in 1924 he was active in the non-PI. But when it opened a new department, which is state law and administrative law. Hatta also entered the majors were encouraged by the great interest in politics.

Extension of his study plan that allows Hatta was elected Chairman of the PI on January 17, 1926. On that occasion, she said her inauguration speech, entitled "Wereldbouw Economische en Machtstegenstellingen" - World Economic Structure and the Conflicts of power. He tried to analyze the structure of world economy and based on it, pointing to a non-cooperative foundation of wisdom.

Since the year 1926 until 1930, successive Hatta was elected Chairman of the PI. Under his leadership, the PI developed from ordinary student associations into political organizations that influence the way people in Indonesian politics. So that finally recognized by the Association of Political Pemufakatan Indonesian Nationhood (PPPI) PI as outposts of the national movements in Europe.

PI doing active propaganda outside the Netherlands. Almost every international congress in Europe enter, and accept these associations. During that time, almost always Hatta himself who led the delegations.

In 1926, with the aim of introducing the name "Indonesia", Hatta, led a delegation to the Democratic Congress for Peace International in Bierville, France. Without much opposition, "Indonesia" was officially recognized by congress. The name "Indonesia" to mention the Dutch East Indies when it was really well known among international organizations.

Hatta, Indonesian nationalist movement had important experience in the League Against Imperialism and Colonial Oppression, an international congress held in Brussels on 10-15 February 1927. At this congress Hatta acquainted with the leaders of the movement of workers, such as G. Fimmen Ledebour and Edo, as well as figures who later became statesmen in Asia and Africa such as Jawaharlal Nehru (India), Hafiz Ramadan Bey (Egypt), and Senghor (Africa). His personal friendship with Nehru initiated since that time.

In 1927 also, Hatta and Nehru invited to give lectures for the "International Women's League for Peace and Freedom" in Gland, Switzerland. Hatta lecture title L 'Indonesie et son Probleme de I' Independence (Indonesia and the Problems of Independence).

Together with St. Nazir. Pamontjak, Sastroamijoyo, and Abdul Madjid Djojoadiningrat, Hatta was jailed for five and a half months. On March 22, 1928, the tribunal in The Hague court freed four of all charges. In a historic session, Hatta defense argued that amazing speech, which was later published as a brochure with the name "Indonesia vrij", and then translated into Indonesian as a book with a title of independent Indonesia.

Between the years 1930-1931, Hatta focus to his studies and writing articles for magazines and Daulat Ra'jat sometimes De Socialist. He planned to end his study in mid 1932.

Return to the Motherland
In July 1932, Hatta was successfully completed his studies in Holland and a month later he arrived in Jakarta. Between late 1932 and 1933, the main bustle of Hatta is written numerous articles and economic politics to Daulat Ra'jat and perform a variety of political activities, especially education of political cadres in the Party of National Education of Indonesia. The principle of non-cooperation is always emphasized to his cadres.

Hatta harsh reaction against Sukarno's attitude in relation to the holder by the Dutch colonial government, which ended with the removal of Sukarno to Ende, Flores, look at his writings in Daulat Ra'jat, entitled "Soekarno Arrested" (August 10, 1933), "Tragedy Sukarno "(30 November 1933), and" Attitude Leaders "(December 10, 1933).

In February 1934, after Sukarno exiled to Ende, the Dutch colonial government turned its attention to the Party of National Education of Indonesia. Party leaders of the Indonesian National Education was arrested and later exiled to Digoel. Totaling seven people. From the Jakarta office is Mohammad Hatta, Sutan Sjahrir, and Bondan. From offices in Bandung: Maskun Sumadiredja, Burhanuddin, delight, and Murwoto. Prior to Digoel, they were imprisoned for nearly a year in jail and Cipinang Glodok, Jakarta. In prison Glodok, Hatta wrote a book titled "The Economic Crisis and Capitalism."

The Exile
In January 1935, Hatta and his friends arrived in Tanah Merah, Digoel (Papua). Heads of government there, Captain van Langen, offers two options: working for the colonial government with a wage 40 cents a day in the hope that will be sent back to the area of origin, or be discarded by receiving food in kind, with no hope to be repatriated to the homeland . Hatta said, when he would work for the colonial government when he was still in Jakarta, would have become a great man with a big salary as well. So he's not necessary to Tanah Merah to become a coolie with a salary of 40 cents a day.

In exile, Hatta regularly writes articles for newspapers Landscape. Honorarium enough to live in Tanah Merah and he can also help his friends. Digoel filled his home in his books specially brought in from Jakarta, as many as 16 boxes. Thus, Hatta has enough material to give a lesson to his friends in exile about economics, history, and philosophy. Collection of materials that lesson later recorded with titles such as, "Introduction to the Science and the Way of Knowledge" and "Natural Greek Thought." (Four volumes).

In December 1935, Captain Wiarda, substitute van Langen, announced that the dump was moved to Hatta and Sjahrir Bandaneira. In January 1936 they went to Bandaneira. They met Dr. And Mr. Tjipto Mangunkusumo. Iwa Kusumasumantri. In Bandaneira, Hatta and Sjahrir can mingle freely with the locals and give lessons to local children in the fields of history, tatabuku, politics, and so on Iain.

Back to Java: The Japanese Occupation
On February 3, 1942, Hatta and Sjahrir brought to Sukabumi. On March 9, 1942, the Government of the Netherlands East Indies to the Japanese surrender, and on March 22, 1942, Hatta and Sjahrir taken to Jakarta.

During the Japanese occupation, Hatta asked to work together as an adviser. Hatta said about the ideals of the Indonesian nation to independence, and he asked if Japan will colonize Indonesia? Daily temporary head of government, Major-General Harada. replied that Japan would not invade. But Hatta know, that the independence of Indonesia in Japan is different from understanding its own terms. Recognition of Independence of Indonesia by Japan's need for Hatta as a weapon against the Allies in the future. When the Japanese fascists want to admit it, whether democratic allies who would not? That's why the Japanese always slot to give such recognition, the newly acquired in September 1944.

During the Japanese occupation period, Hatta did not talk much. But speech that is spoken in the Field Ikada (now Independence Square) on the date of December 8, 1942 appall many circles. He said, "Indonesia apart from the Dutch colonial imperialism. And therefore he did not want to be a colony again. Young and old is as sharp-sharp taste. For the youth of Indonesia, he  lover to see Indonesia sank into the ocean rather than have it as a colony of people back. "

In early August 1945, committee investigators Efforts Preparation of Indonesian Independence replaced by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence, with Sukarno as Chairman and Mohammad Hatta as Vice Chairman. Its members consist of representatives of regions throughout Indonesia, Java and nine of twelve people from outside the island of Java.

On August 16, 1945 night, the Preparatory Committee to prepare the proclamation of Indonesian Independence in a meeting at the house of Admiral Maeda (JI Imam Bonjol, now), which ended at 3:00 am the next morning. Small committee consisting of five persons, namely Soekarno, Hatta, Soebardjo, Soekarni, and Sanam Malik broke away into a room to arrange the text of the proclamation of independence. Soekarno Hatta requested proclamation compile a concise text. Soekarno Hatta suggested that writing words that Learner After the work was completed. they took him to the living room, where other members waiting.

Soekarni suggested that the manuscript proclamation signed by two persons only, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta. All in attendance welcomed by boisterous applause.

Date August 17, 1945, Indonesia's independence was proclaimed by Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta on behalf of the Indonesian nation, just at 10:00 AM at East 56th Street Pengangsaan Jakarta.

Dated August 18, 1945, Ir Soekarno was appointed as President of the Republic of Indonesia and Drs. Mohammad Hatta was appointed Deputy President of the Republic of Indonesia. Soekardjo Wijopranoto suggested that the President and Vice President must be a single duumvirate.

Maintaining the period of Indonesian Independence
Indonesia should retain its independence from the Dutch government efforts to colonize again. The Government of the Republic of Indonesia moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta. Twice negotiations with the Dutch produce Linggajati and Reville Agreement, but it always ended in failure due to cheating the Dutch.

To seek support from abroad, in July I947, Bung Hatta went to India to meet Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi. disguised as a co-pilot, named Abdullah (Biju Patnaik was the pilot who later became Minister of Steel India in the administration of Prime Minister Morarji Desai). Nehru promised, India can help Indonesia with a resolution to the UN protest and the Netherlands in order to be punished.

Difficulties and threats faced by turns. September 1948 PKI rebellion. December 19, 1948, the Dutch again launched a second aggression. President and Vice President captured and exiled to Bangka. But the struggle of the Indonesian people to defend the independence continue raging everywhere. Great Commander Soediman continue to lead the armed struggle.

On December 27, 1949 in The Hague, Bung Hatta, who chaired the Delegation of Indonesia in the Round Table Conference to receive the recognition of Indonesian sovereignty of Queen Juliana.

Bung Hatta was also a time Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia States stands. Furthermore, after the RIS to the Unitary State of Republic of Indonesia, Bung Hatta returned to the Vice President.

Year Period 1950-1956
During the Vice-President, Bung Hatta remain active giving lectures in various institutions of higher education. He also continued to write various essays and books on economic and scientific cooperation. He is also active in guiding the cooperative movement to implement the ideals in the conception of the economy. Dated July 12, 1951, Bung Hatta radio speech to welcome the Day of Cooperatives in Indonesia. Because much is Bung Hatta activities in the cooperative movement, on July 17, 1953 he was appointed as the Father of Indonesian Cooperative Cooperatives Congress on Indonesia in Bandung. Bung Hatta thoughts about cooperatives, among others, outlined in his book entitled Building a Cooperative and Cooperative Building (1971).

In 1955, Bung Hatta announced that if the Constituent parliament and the people's choice has been formed, he would resign as Vice President. His intention to resign was knows through a letter to the chairman of Parliament, Mr. Sartono. Copies of the letter sent to President Sukarno. After the Constituent Assembly was officially opened by the President, Vice-President Hatta told the Speaker of the Parliament that on l December 1956 he would put his position as Vice President of RI. President Sukarno tried to dissuade him, but remained on the establishment of Bung Hatta.

On date 27 November 1956, he received an honorary degree of Doctor Honors Causa academic in legal studies from the University of Gajah Mada in Yoyakarta. On that occasion, Bung Hatta inaugural speech, entitled "Past and Coming".

Bung Hatta After putting his position as Vice President of the Republic, also earned several academic degrees from various universities. Padjadjaran University in Bandung confirmed Bung Hatta as a political science professor in the economy. Hasanuddin University in Ujung Pandang to give the title of Doctor Honoris Causa in Economics. University of Indonesia provide a degree of Doctor Honor-is Causal in the field of legal science. Bung Hatta inaugural speech entitled "Towards the Rule of Law".

In 1960, Bung Hatta wrote "Democracy We" in the banner of People magazine. A famous for writing that highlight the views and thoughts of Bung Hatta on the development of democracy in Indonesia at that time.

During the New Order government, Bung Hatta is more of elder statesman for the nation rather than a politician.

Rahmi Hatta Rachim married on November l8 Megamendung 1945 in the village, Bogor, West Java. They have three daughters, namely Meutia Farida, Gemala Rabi'a, and Halide Nuriah. The two oldest daughters are married. The first was by Dr. Sri-Edi Swasono and the second with Drs. Mohammad Chalil Baridjambek. Hatta had witnessed the birth of two grandsons, namely Sri Juwita Hanum Baridjambek Swasono and Mohammad Athar.

On August 15, 1972, President Suharto told the Bung Hatta grace of the highest state of alert of Honor 'Star of the Republic of Indonesia Class I "in a state ceremony at the State Palace.
Bung Hatta, Proclaimers of Independence and the First Vice-President of the Republic of Indonesia, died on March 14, 1980 at Tjipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Dr., Singapore, at the age of 77 years and was interred in the Land TPU driver on March 15, 1980.

TokohIndonesia Dotcom (Encyclopedia of People of Indonesia), from the Tomb of Bung Hatta Books 1982 and variety of sources)

No comments:

Post a Comment