Sunday, July 11, 2010

First Prime Minister of Indonesia

Sutan Syahrir (1909-1966)

Sutan Syahrir (Soetan Syahrir) was the First Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia (November 14, 1945 until June 20, 1947). Men born in Padang Panjang, West Sumatra, March 5, 1909, was a politician who founded the Indonesian Socialist Party (1948). He died in exile as a political prisoner (Zürich, Switzerland, 9 April 1966) at the age of 57 years.

Husband of Mary Duchateau, and Poppy, is completing primary school (ELS) and secondary (MULO) the best in Medan in 1926. Since adolescence, he was fond of foreign books and novels Netherlands. Also enjoys the arts, where sometimes he Sing a song on street at the Hotel de Boer, exclusively for hotel guests whites.

After being graduated from MULO, he entered high school (AMS) in Bandung. In this school, his artistic talents developed further after he joined the Theatre Association of Indonesian Students (Batovis). Here, he acted as director, screenwriter, and actor.

Results obtained from the staging was used to finance the school that she founded, Tjahja Volksuniversiteit, Light University of the People.

Not surprisingly, among students AMS Bandung, Syahrir become a star. He is a student who is very busy with books, both active in various art activities and debate club at his school. Even he still spend time in literacy education activities free of charge for children from families unable to in Tjahja Volksuniversiteit.

Syahrir then began to enter the world that leads to so political. On February 20, 1927, one out of ten people Syahrir the originator of the establishment of a nationalist youth association, Jong Indonesie, which later changed its name so the Youth of Indonesia. This society became the motor organization of the Indonesian Youth Congress which sparked the Youth Pledge in 1928.

Still time to learn as middle school students, Syahrir also been active as a magazine editor in chief nationalist youth association. As Chief Editor, Syahrir often wanted by the police because it contains news PKI rebellion in 1926.

AMS finish, Syahrir continuing education to the Faculty of Law, University of Amsterdam, Leiden, The Netherlands. There, he studied the theories of socialism. He is familiar with Salomon Bags, Chairman of the Social Democratic Students Club, and his wife Maria Duchateau, who later married Syahrir. Mary's marriage with only briefly. Syahrir later remarried with Poppy, the oldest brother of Soedjatmoko and Miriam Boediardjo.

For the more familiar world of the proletariat and its movement organizations, Syahrir also worked in the Secretariat of the International Transport Workers Federation. In addition, Syahrir also active in the Association of Indonesia (PI) which was then headed by Mohammad Hatta.

Late in 1931, Syahrir return to homeland and engage in the national movement. He joined the organization's National Education of Indonesia (PNI Baru), which later in June 1932 lead. He also practiced in the homeland of the world proletariat. He plunged in the labor movement. Also write about labor much in Daulat Rakyat. Also often speak about movement of labor in political forums. Then, in May 1933, Syahrir was asked to be Chairman of Indonesian Workers Congress.

Hatta, following the return to homeland in August 1932. Hatta appeared to lead the New PNI together Syahrir. The organization is successfully scored movement cadres. Even the Dutch colonial administration rate, Hatta and Syahrir political movement in the New PNI's movement was more radical than his Soekarno with PNI that rely on mass mobilization. According to the colonial police, the New PNI is equivalent to Western organizations. Although no mass action and agitation, but the intelligent, successful in educating the cadres of the movement is ready to move toward revolutionary goals.

Thus, in February 1934, the Dutch colonial government imprisoned and discard Syahrirdan Hatta, as well as several leaders of the New PNI to Boven Digul. After nearly a year and Hatta Syahrir moved to Banda Neira, here they go through the Babylonian exile for six years.

The period of Japanese occupation

Meanwhile, Sukarno and Hatta in cooperation with Japan, Syahrir build an underground network of anti-fascist. Syahrir believe Japan could not win the war, therefore, the movement must prepare itself to win independence at the right time. Network nodes of the underground group is Syahrir New PNI cadres will continue their movement and the young cadres of progressive students.

Literature, a senior figure of the labor movement who are familiar with Syahrir, wrote: "Under the leadership Syahrir, we went underground, to develop subjective strength, while awaiting the arrival of the development of objective circumstances and psychological moments to seize power and independence."

Objective situation was even more clearly when the Japanese increasingly pressured by the Allied forces. Syahrir know the progress of World War surreptitious way to listen to news from foreign radio stations. At that time, all radios can not capture foreign news because it was sealed by the Japanese. The news is then he gave to Hatta. While that, Syahrir preparing an underground movement to seize power from the hands of the Japanese.

Syahrir who supported the youth urged Sukarno and Hatta to proclaim independence on August 15 because the Japanese had surrendered, Syahrir ready with an underground movement to mass rallies seizure of power as a symbol of popular support. Sukarno and Hatta, who has not received the news of Japan's surrender, did not respond positively. They are awaiting information from the Japanese side in Indonesia, and the proclamation by the decision must comply with the procedures of the Preparatory Committee of Indonesian Independence (PPKI) established by the Japanese. PPKI according to plan, the independence will be proclaimed on 24 September 1945.

Sukarno and Hatta's attitude is disappointing for young people, because this attitude of independence risk assessed as a gift of Japan and the Republic is a Japanese creation. Urging tougher, the youth was kidnapped Sukarno and Hatta on August 16. Finally, Sukarno and Hatta proclaimed Indonesia's independence on August 17.

Indonesian National Revolution

Revolution creates an atmosphere of anger and fear, because it is difficult to think clearly. So that very few people who have a convincing concept and strategic steps to control the uproar of the revolution. At that time, there are two people with the popular thinking among the fighters then adopted many of the republic: Tan Malaka and Sutan Syahrir. Two leaders of independence movement which was considered sterile from the taint of collaboration with the Fascist Government of Japan, although later opposed the road in memperjuangan sovereignty of the republic.

At that critical time, man Syahrir Struggle We write. A map of the problem within minutes of the Indonesian revolution, both political-economic analysis of the world after World War II. Be Heroes We came jerking consciousness. Treatise is like a guide and a map to steer the ship of the Republic of Indonesia in the storm of revolution.

Syahrir writings in Our Struggle, making him look the opposite, and attack the Sukarno. If Sukarno is very obsessed with unity, Syahrir actually wrote, "Each union will only be tactical, temporary, and therefore incidental. Attempts to unify by force, only to produce children transvestite. Union of that kind is going to hurt, lost, and damage the movement. "

And he has denounced Sukarno. "Nationalism is Soekarno built on solidarity, hierarchical, feudalistic: fascism actually is, the greatest enemy of progress of the world and our people." He also mocked the Soekarno-style mass agitation which he could not bring clarity.

Our Struggle is the greatest work Syahrir, said Salomon Bags, along with the letters during his political exile in Boven Digul and Bandaneira. The manuscript was called Indonesianis Ben Anderson as, "The only systematic attempt to analyze the domestic and international forces that hamper Indonesia and that gives the perspective that makes sense for the independence movement in the future."

Proved later, on November 45 Syahrir supported Sukarno appointed youth and became a parliamentary cabinet formation. At the age of 36 years, begin play in the stage Syahrir fight for the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia, as the world's youngest Prime Minister, concurrently Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of the Interior.


The kidnapping of the Prime Minister Sjahrir is an event that occurred on June 26, 1946 in Surakarta by the opposition Union of Struggle are not satisfied with the diplomacy conducted by the Cabinet Sjahrir II with the Dutch government. This group wanted the recognition of full sovereignty, while the cabinet of the ruling only requires the recognition of sovereignty over Java and Madura.

Struggle Unity group is led by Maj. Gen. Soedarsono and 14 civilian leaders, including Tan Malaka of the Indonesian Communist Party. Prime Minister Sjahrir arrested at a house in Paras.

President Soekarno was angry over this and ordered the kidnappings of Surakarta Police arrested the leaders of these groups. Date July 1, 1946, the 14 leaders were arrested and thrown in jail Wirogunan.

Date July 2, 1946, 3rd Division troops led by Maj. Gen. Soedarsono Wirogunan stormed a prison and freed 14 kidnap leader.

President Soekarno was angry to hear the raid prison and ordered Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, the leader of the military in Surakarta, to capture the leadership of Major General Soedarsono and kidnapping. Lt. Kol. Suharto refused orders because he did not want to catch the director or his own superiors. He only wanted to capture the rebels if there was a direct order from the Military Chief of Staff, General Sudirman. President Soekarno was angry over this rejection and dub Fl. Kol. Soeharto as headstrong officer (koppig).

Let future. Kol. Suharto became President Soeharto and publish the records of the events of this rebellion in his autobiography book Speech, Thoughts and Actions.

Lt. Kol. Soeharto pretended to sympathize with the rebellion and offer protection to Maj. Soedarsono and led to 14 people at the headquarters of the army regiments in Wijoro. Lt. evening. Kol. Soedarsono and Maj. Gen. Suharto to persuade rebel leaders to meet the President at the Presidential Palace in Yogyakarta. In secrecy, Fl. Kol. Suharto also contacted the army guards the President and inform plans and the arrival of rebel leader Major General Soedarsono.

Dated July 3, 1946, Major General Soedarsono and the rebels successfully disarmed and arrested near the Presidential Palace in Yogyakarta by presidential guard troops. This event was then known as the July 3, 1946 revolt that failed.

Diplomacy Syahrir

After the kidnapping incident Syahrir only served as Minister of Foreign Affairs, the task as Prime Minister took over President Sukarno. However, on October 2, 1946, the President appoint as Prime Minister again Syahrir to resume talks that eventually destined signed on November 15, 1946.

Without Syahrir, Sukarno can burn in a lake of fire which he lit. Conversely, it is hard indisputable that without the Bung Karno, Syahrir helpless nothing.

Syahrir acknowledged leader Sukarno was recognized people's republic. Sukarno was unifying the nation of Indonesia. Because agitasinya the surge, the people in the former Dutch East Indies territories support the revolution. Nevertheless, the power giant has been enabled Sukarno should be dammed to then directed correctly, so that energy does not overflow and destroy it.

Bung Hatta as the argument that the revolution must be controlled; could not have walked too long revolution, a revolution that shook the 'joints' and 'wedge' of society if not controlled it will destroy all the 'building'.

In order for the Republic of Indonesia does not collapse and cause of the people did not show the face of violent, Syahrir run its trick. In government, as chairman of the Working Committee of the Central Indonesian National Committee (BP KNIP), he became the architect of a presidential Cabinet changes Parliamentary Cabinet responsible to KNIP as an institution that has a legislative function. RI also adopted a multiparty system. Structure of the administration in conformity with the political currents of post-World War II, the victory of democracy over fascism. To the masses, Syahrir always called for human values and anti-violence.

With this strategies, Syahrir show to the international world that the revolution of the Republic of Indonesia is the struggle of a civilized and democratic nation in the midst of awakening of nations to escape from the clutches of colonialism in post-World War II. The Dutch often make propaganda that people in Indonesia is a brutal gang, like killing, robbing, kidnapping, etc.. Because it is valid for the Netherlands, through NICA, upholding the social order as the condition of the Dutch East Indies before World War II. Propaganda break it, Syahrir initiate art exhibition which was then covered and publicized by journalists overseas.

There is a story about the personal consequences Syahrir attitude of anti-violence. At the end of December 1946, Prime Minister Syahrir intercepted and a pistol mugged by soldiers NICA. When the soldier pulled the trigger, the gun jammed. Because growled, to beat Syahrir with the butt of a pistol. The news then spread through the Radio Republic Indonesia. At that, Syahrir with swollen eyes turn blue giving a strong warning to the broadcast stopped, could cause a fatal impact of the Dutch people murdered in the camps by fighters of the republic, when he knew the leader was beaten.

Despite falling-up due to various opposition among his own nation, the Cabinet Sjahrir I, II Sjahrir Cabinet to Cabinet Sjahrir III (1945 to 1947) consistently fighting for the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia through diplomatic channels. Syahrir not want silly faces in terms of allied soldier who was obviously much more sophisticated weaponry. Temporary victory of diplomacy and then bear fruit. England as the allies of command for Southeast Asia urged the Netherlands to sit down to negotiate with the government of the republic. Politically, this means a de facto ally of the government acknowledge the existence of RI.

Diperkeruh diplomacy winding road with the Dutch military action strikes on July 21, 1947. The Dutch action was actually brought Indonesia to the forum of the United Nations (UN). After no longer served as Prime Minister (Cabinet Sjahrir III), Syahrir Indonesia sent a representative to the United Nations. With the help of Biju Patnaik, Syahrir with Agus Salim went to Lake Success, New York via New Delhi and Cairo to garner support for India and Egypt.

On August 14, 1947 Syahrir speech in front of the UN Security Council session. Faced with the representatives of nations worldwide, Syahrir parse Indonesia as a nation that for centuries civilized script then exploited by the colonial powers. Then, in a masterful Syahrir break one by one argument that has been conveyed Dutch representative, Van Kleffens. With that, Indonesia had taken a position as a nation that memperjuangan sovereignty in the international arena. The UN had intervened, so that the Dutch failed to sustain its efforts to make Indonesian-Dutch dispute as a matter of purely domestic affairs.

Van Kleffens failing to bring the Dutch interests in the UN Security Council session. Dutch various circles that the failure rate as the defeat of an eminent diplomat with experience in the international arena with a young diplomat from the country that had just been born. Van Kleffens was withdrawn from the position as the Dutch representative at the United Nations became the Dutch ambassador in Turkey.

Syahrir popular among the journalists who covered the UN Security Council session, especially journalists who are in Indonesia during the revolution. Several newspapers have named as The Smiling Diplomat Syahrir.

Syahrir represent Indonesia at the UN during the first month, in two trials. Leadership of the Indonesian delegation subsequently represented by the Lambertus Nicodemus Palar (LN) Palar until the year 1950. [1]

Socialist Party of Indonesia

After leading the cabinet, Sutan Syahrir appointed as advisor of President Soekarno once Ambassador at Large. In 1948 Syahrir founded the Indonesian Socialist Party (PSI) as the party alternative to the other party that grew out of the international communist movement. Although the PSI and the left-wing base on the teachings of Marx-Engels, but he opposed the Soviet state system. According to the understanding of socialism is to uphold the degree of humanity, recognizing and respecting every human equality.

Hobbies Aeronautics and Music

Despite small stature, who by his friends often nicknamed Si Kancil, Sutan Syahrir is one of sport aviation enthusiasts, a small plane had flown from Jakarta to Yogyakarta on the occasion of the visit to Yogyakarta. They are also delighted with classical music, where he also could play the violin.

Death bed

1955 PSI failed to collect the votes in the first general election in Indonesia. After the case PRRI and PSI in 1958 [2], the relationship Sutan Syahrir and President Soekarno worse until the PSI finally abolished in 1960. In 1962, Syahrir arrested and imprisoned without trial until 1965 until suffering a stroke. After that Syahrir allowed to go to Zurich Switzerland, one of his close friend who has served as vice chairman of PSI Sugondo Djojopuspito he delivers in Kemayoran airport and hugged Sugondo Syahrir degan tears, and eventually died in Switzerland on April 9, 1966. (Source: Wikipedia)

^ Sinar Harapan Online, August 24, 2005, response to Bung Marzuki Usman (1), Poor Nation thanks Clever?
^ Robert Cribb, Audrey Kahin Historical Dictionary of Indonesia, Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992

Reading reference
Legge, J.D. The Intellectuals and the Struggle for Independence. Role Sjahrir Group. Jakarta, Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 1993.
Past and Coming. Mohammad Hatta's speech on receiving a Doctorate Honoris Causa from the University of Gadjah Mada University, 1956
Studies, Y.B. Sutan Sjahrir Dilemma: Between Thinkers and politicians. Prisma, August 1977.
Commemorating Sjahrir, edited by H. Rosihan Anwar. Jakarta, Gramedia, 1980.
Rudolf Mrazek. Sjahrir: Politics and Exile in Indonesia. Jakarta, Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 1996.

No comments:

Post a Comment