Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Politics and governance in Indonesia

Indonesia to govern a democratic multiparty presidential republic. As well as in other democratic countries, the political system in Indonesia is based on the Trias Politica namely the legislative, executive and judicial branches. Legislative power is held by an institution called the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR).

MPR was once the highest state institution unicameral, but after the 4th amendment to the Assembly is not the highest body again, and also changed the composition of its membership. Assembly after the 1945 amendment, which since 2004 was transformed into a bicameral body consisting of 560 members of the House of Representatives (DPR) which is representative of the people through political parties, plus the 132 members of the Regional Representatives Council (DPD) which is the provincial representative of an independent pathway. DPR and DPD members elected by popular vote and was inaugurated for a term of five years. Previously, members of the Assembly are all members of Parliament plus group representatives and military / police. MPR is currently chaired by Taufiq Kiemas. DPR is currently chaired by Marzuki Alie, while the Council is currently chaired by Irman Gusman.

Executive agencies centered on the president, vice presidents, and cabinet. Cabinet in Indonesia is that the Presidential Cabinet of ministers responsible to the president and does not represent a political party in parliament. However, the current President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono that promoted by Democrats also pointed to a number of leaders of political parties to sit in his cabinet. The goal is to maintain the stability of the government given the strong position of the legislature in Indonesia. However, items of strategic importance and are generally filled by a minister without portfolio of the party (coming from someone who is considered an expert in his field).

The judicial institution since the reform and the amendment of the 1945 run by the Supreme Court, the Judicial Commission, and the Constitutional Court, including the administration of the judges. Nevertheless the presence of the Minister of Justice and Human Rights will be retained.

Indonesian Etymology

The word "Indonesia" is derived from the Latin Indus, meaning "Indian" and nesos Greek word meaning "island". So, says Indonesia means the territory of the Indian islands, or archipelago located in the Indies, which indicates that the name was formed long before Indonesia became a sovereign state. In 1850, George Earl, a British ethnologist, originally proposed the term Indunesia and Malayunesia to residents "Indian Archipelago or Malay Archipelago". Disciple of Earl, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym of the word India Islands. However, Dutch academics writing in the media do not use the word Dutch East Indies Indonesia, but the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); Dutch East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indie), or Indian (Indie), Eastern (de Oost), and even Insulinde (this term introduced in 1860 in the novel Max Havelaar (1859), written by Multatuli, the criticism of Dutch colonialism)

Since 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian from the University of Berlin popularize this name through the book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884-1894. Indonesia's first student to use it is Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a news agency in the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Press Bureau in 1913.

Republic of Indonesia abbreviated RI

Republic of Indonesia Indonesia is the abbreviated RI or country in Southeast Asia, which is crossed by the equator and located between the continents of Asia and Australia as well as between the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic country consisting of 13 487 islands, therefore he is also known as Nusantara ("outer islands", in addition to Java, which is considered the center). With a population of 222 million people in 2006, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world and the largest Muslim country in the world, although not officially an Islamic state. Indonesia is a republic form of government, the House of Representatives, Regional Representative Council and the President is elected directly. Capital city is Jakarta. Indonesia borders Malaysia on Borneo island, with Papua New Guinea on New Guinea and East Timor on the island of Timor. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands in India.

History of Indonesia is heavily influenced by other nations. Indonesia archipelago became an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when the kingdom of Palembang Srivijaya in religion and trade relations with China and India. Hindu kingdoms and Buddhism has been growing in the early centuries AD, followed by the traders who brought Islam, and various European powers fought each other to monopolize the spice trade in the Moluccas during the era of ocean exploration. Having been under Dutch rule, Indonesia which was called the Dutch East Indies declared its independence at the end of World War II. Indonesia's history has many obstacles, threats and challenges of natural disasters, corruption, separatism, a democratization process and a period of rapid economic change.

From Sabang to Merauke, Indonesia consists of various ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group and most politically dominant. Indonesia's national motto, "Unity in Diversity" ("It varies, but remains one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Besides having a dense population and vast territory, Indonesia has a natural area that supports the second largest biodiversity in the world.

Indonesia is also a member of the UN and the only member who ever came out of the United Nations, which was on January 7, 1965, and joined again on September 28, 1966, and Indonesia and equipment are stated as a member of the 60th, the same membership since joining Indonesia on 28 September 1950. In addition to the United Nations, Indonesia is also a member of ASEAN, APEC, OIC, G-20 and will be a member of the OECD.

Celebrity News of Indonesia

Pop music of pre-modern Korea first appeared in the 1930's due to the inclusion of Japanese pop music also affects the initial elements of pop music in Korea. Japanese colonial rule over Korea also made a music genre developed and Korea can not simply follow the development of Japanese pop culture at that time. In the 1950s and 1960s, the influence of western pop music began to go with the many musical performances organized by the United States military bases in South Korea. Korean Pop music was originally divided into different genres, the first is a genre of "oldies" who influenced western and popular music in the '60s era. In the 1970s, rock music was introduced to the pioneering Cho Yong-pil. Another quite popular genre is the music that influenced Trot enka music of Japan.

Debut appearance of the group Seo Taiji and Boys in the year 1992 marks the beginning of modern pop music in Korea who gave new colors to the flow of rap music, rock, techno America. Success of the group Seo Taiji and Boys followed by other bands such as Panic, and Deux. These trends helped give birth to a lot of music bands and other quality musicians today. Pop music of the 90s decade tend to wing dance and hip hop. Its main market is the youth of this decade appears that many groups "teen idol" very crazy like CLON, HOT, Sechs Kies, SES, and god Most of this music group is disbanded and its members solo-career.

In 2000-an talented newcomers started to appear. R & B genre and Hip-Hop are oriented to the American print artists such MC Mong, 1TYM, Rain, Big Bang is quite successful in Korea and abroad. Some underground artists such as Drunken Tiger, Tasha (Yoon Mi-rae) are also popularized the color of black music. Rock music is still popular in Korea Seo Taiji coupled with the return of the solo careers as well as a rock musician Yoon Do Hyun Band often sing songs about nationalism and love of country. Give the feel of modern techno music that is not only favored in Korea alone, singer Lee Jung-hyun and Kim Hyun-joong even gained recognition in China and Japan. Ballad music still has the most listeners in Korea. Korean ballad music is generally known by the sad lyrics about romance, as sung by Baek Ji Young, KCM, SG Wannabe, and so forth. Ballad music is particularly popular because it is often used as a soundtrack of hit television dramas like Winter Sonata, Sorry I Love You, Stairway to Heaven, and so on.

Various Korean artists reap success in the international community as a penetrating BoA Japan and popular in many countries. Then other artists like Rain, Se7en, Shinhwa, Ryu Shi-won, and so the race to conquer the music market in Japan. Rain was recorded as the first Asian artist to hold an international concert tour titled Rainy Day 2005, at Madison Square Garden.