Saturday, August 28, 2010


Srivijaya was a ethnic Malay kingdom on Sumatra which influenced much of the Maritime Southeast Asia. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
As early as the first century CE Indonesian vessels made trade voyages as far as Africa. Picture: a ship carved on Borobudur, circa 800 CE.
The empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia
Srivijaya was centred in the coastal trading centre of present day Palembang. Srivijaya was not a "state" in the modern sense with defined boundaries and a centralized government to which the citizens own allegiance. Rather Srivijaya was a confederacy form of society centered on a royal heartland. It was a thalassocracy and did not extend its influence far beyond the coastal areas of the islands of Southeast Asia. Trade was the driving force of Srivijaya just as it is for most societies throughout history. The Srivijayan navy controlled the trade that made its way through the Strait of Malacca.

By the 7th century, the harbors of various vassal states of Srivijaya lined both coasts of the Straits of Melaka.[16] Around this time, Srivijaya had established suzerainty over large areas of Sumatra, western Java, and much of the Malay Peninsula. Dominating the Malacca and Sunda straits, the empire controlled both the Spice Route traffic and local trade. It remained a formidable sea power until the 13th century. This spread the ethnic Malay culture throughout Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, and western Borneo. A stronghold of Vajrayana Buddhism, Srivijaya attracted pilgrims and scholars from other parts of Asia.
Picture: a ship carved on Borobudur
A series of Chola raids in the 11th century weakened the Srivijayan hegemony and enabled the formation of regional kingdoms based, like Kediri, on intensive agriculture rather than coastal and long distance trade. Srivijayan influence waned by the 11th century. The island was in frequent conflict with the Javanese kingdoms, first Singhasari and then Majapahit. Islam eventually made its way to the Aceh region of Sumatra, spreading its influence through contacts with Arabs and Indian traders. By the late 13th century, the kingdom of Pasai in northern Sumatra converted to Islam. At that time Srivijaya was briefly a tributary of the Khmer empire and later the Sukhothai kingdom[citation needed]. The last inscription dates to 1374, where a crown prince, Ananggavarman, is mentioned. Srivijaya ceased to exist by 1414, when Parameswara, the kingdom's last prince, converted to Islam and founded the Sultanate of Malacca on the Malay peninsula.


Malang town hall
Malang is the second largest city in East Java province, Indonesia. It has an ancient history dating back to the Mataram Kingdom. The city population at the present time is around 780,000. During the period of Dutch colonization, it was a popular destination for European residents. The city is famous for its cool air and the surrounding country regions of Tumpang, Batu, Singosari, and Turen. People in East Java sometimes call it "Paris van East Java." Malang was spared many of the effects of the Asian financial crisis, and since that time it has been marked by steady economic and population growth.

Indonesian and Malay legends

Although time frames for the establishment of Islam in Indonesian regions can be broadly determined, the historical primary sources cannot answer many specific questions, and considerable controversy surrounds the topic. Such sources don't explain why significant conversions of Indonesians to Islam did not begin until after several centuries of foreign Muslims visiting and living in Indonesia, nor do they adequately explain the origin and development of Indonesia's idiosyncratic strains of Islam, or how Islam came to be the dominant religion in Indonesia. To fill these gaps, many scholars turn to Malay and Indonesian legends surrounding Indonesian conversion to Islam. Ricklefs argues that although they are not reliable historical accounts of actual events, they are valuable in illuminating some of the events is through their shared insights into the nature of learning and magical powers, foreign origins and trade connections of the early teachers, and the conversion process that moved from the elite downwards. These also provide insight into how later generations of Indonesians view Islamisation. These sources include:

* Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai ("The Story of the kings of Pasai") an Old Malay text that tells how Islam came to "Samudra" (Pasai, northern Sumatra) where the first Indonesian Islamic state was founded.
* Sejarah Melayu ("Malay History") an Old Malay text, which like Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai tells the story of the conversion of Samudra, but also tells of the conversion of the King of Malacca.
* Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java") a generic name for a large number of manuscripts, in which the first Javanese conversions are attributed to the Wali Sanga ("nine saints").
* Sejarah Banten ("History of Banten") A Javanese text containing stories of conversion.

Of the texts mentioned here, the Malay texts describe the conversion process as a significant watershed, signified by formal and tangible signs of conversion such as circumcision, the Confession of Faith, and the adoption of an Arabic name. On the other hand, while magical events still play a prominent role in the Javanese accounts of Islamisation, such turning points of conversion as in the Malay texts are otherwise not as evident. This suggests a more absorptive process for the Javanese,[11] that is consistent with the significantly larger syncretic element in contemporary Javanese Islam in comparison to the relatively orthodox Islam of Sumatra and Malaysia.

The spread of Islam in Indonesia

Islam is thought to have first been adopted by peoples of the Indonesian archipelago during the eleventh century, although Muslims had visited the archipelago early in the Muslim era. By the end of the 16th century, Islam, through conversion, had surpassed Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of the peoples of Java and Sumatra. At this time, only Bali retained a Hindu-practising majority, and the eastern islands remained largely animist but would adopt Islam and Christianity in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

The spread of Islam was driven by increasing trade links outside of the archipelago; in general, traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were the first to adopt the new religion. Dominant kingdoms included Mataram in Central Java, and the sultanates of Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to the east. By the end of the thirteenth century, Islam had been established in North Sumatra; by the fourteenth in northeast Malaya, Brunei, the southern Philippines and among some courtiers of East Java; and the fifteenth in Malacca and other areas of the Malay Peninsula. Although it is known that the spread of Islam began in the west of the archipelago, the fragmentary evidence does not suggest a rolling wave of conversion through adjacent areas; rather, it suggests the process was complicated and slow.

Despite being one of the most significant developments in Indonesian history, historical evidence is fragmentary and generally uninformative such that understandings of the coming of Islam to Indonesia are limited; there is considerable debate amongst scholars about what conclusions can be drawn about the conversion of Indonesian peoples. The primary evidence, at least of the earlier stages of the process, are gravestones and a few travelers accounts, but these can only show that indigenous Muslims were in a certain place at a certain time. This evidence cannot explain more complicated matters such as how lifestyles were affected by the new religion or how deeply it affected societies. It cannot be assumed, for example, that because a ruler was known to be a Muslim, that that the process of Islamisation of that area was complete; rather the process was, and remains to this day, a continuous process in Indonesia

Sunan Bayat

Sunan Bayat is often mentioned in the Javanese manuscripts of the Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java") as a Wali Sanga (nine saints), although the chronicles do not generally consider Bayat as one of the main sanga. The Wali Sanga are associated with establishing Islam as the dominant religion amongst the Javanese, the largest ethnic group in Indonesia.

Sunan Bayat is said to have been an employee of a female rice merchant.

Friday, August 27, 2010

Indonesian National Awakening

In October 1908, the first nationalist movement was formed, Budi Utomo. On September 10, 1912, the first nationalist mass movement was formed--Sarekat Islam. By December 1912, Sarakat Islam had 93,000 members. The Dutch responded after the First World War with repressive measures. The nationalist leaders came from a small group of young professionals and students, some of whom had been educated in the Netherlands. In the post-World War I era, the Indonesian communists who were associated with the Third International started to usurp the nationalist movement. The repression of the nationalist movement led to many arrests, including Indonesia's first president, Sukarno (1901–70), who was imprisoned for political activities on December 29, 1929. Also arrested was Mohammad Hatta, first Vice-President of Indonesia. Additinally, Sutan Sjahrir, who later became the first Prime Minister of Indonesia, was arrested on this date.

In 1914 exiled Dutch socialist Henk Sneevliet founded the Indies Social Democratic Association. Initially a small forum of Dutch socialists, it would later evolve into the Communist Party of Indonesia in 1924. In the post-World War I era, the Dutch strongly repressed all attempts at change. This repression led to a growth of the P.K.I. By December 1924, the P.K.I had a membership of 1,140.[35] One year later in 1925, the P.K.I. had grown to 3,000 members. In 1926 thru 1927, there was a P.K.I. led revolt against the Dutch colonialism and the harsh repression based on strikes of urban workers.[37] However, the strikes and the revolt was put down by the Dutch with some 13,000 nationalists and communists leaders arrested. Some 4,500 were given prison sentences.

Sukarno was released from prison in December 1931.[40] However, Sukarno was re-arrested again on August 1, 1933

Early kingdoms

References to the Dvipantara or Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra appear in Sanskrit

writings from 200 BC.[citation needed] The earliest archeological relic discovered in Indonesia is

from the Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, where an early Hindu statue of Ganesha from the

1st century AD was found on the summit of Mount Raksa in Panaitan Island. There is also

archeological evidence of a kingdom in Sunda territory in West Java dating from the 2nd century,

and according to Dr Tony Djubiantono, the head of Bandung Archeology Agency, Jiwa Temple in

Batujaya, Karawang, West Java was also built around this time.
8th century Borobudur buddhist monument, Sailendra dynasty
A number of Hindu and Buddhist states flourished and then declined across Indonesia. By the time

of the European Renaissance, Java and Sumatra had already seen over a millennium of civilization

and two major empires. One such early kingdom was Tarumanagara, which flourished between 358 and

669 AD. Located in West Java close to modern-day Jakarta, its fifth-century king, Purnawarman,

established the earliest known inscriptions in Java, the Ciaruteun inscription located near Bogor.

On this monument, King Purnavarman inscribed his name and made an imprint of his footprints, as

well as his elephant's footprints. The accompanying inscription reads, "Here are the footprints of

King Purnavarman, the heroic conqueror of the world". This inscription is in Sanskrit and is still

clear after 1500 years. Purnawarman apparently built a canal that changed the course of the Cakung

River, and drained a coastal area for agriculture and settlement. In his stone inscriptions,

Purnawarman associated himself with Vishnu, and Brahmins ritually secured the hydraulic project.
Three rough plinths dating from the beginning of the 4th century are found in Kutai, East

Kalimantan, near Mahakam River. The plinths bear an inscription in the Pallava script of India

reading "A gift to the Brahmin priests".

The political history of Indonesian archipelago during the seventh to 11th century was dominated

by Srivijaya based in Sumatra, also Sailendra that dominated central Java and constructed

Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. In fourteenth and fifteen centuries the

history is not well known due to scarcity of evidence. Two major states dominated this period;

Majapahit in East Java, the greatest of the pre-Islamic Indonesian states, and Malacca on the west

coast of the Malay Peninsula, arguably the greatest of the Muslim trading empires.


Geologically the area of modern Indonesia appeared sometime around the Pleistocene period, when it was still linked with the Asian mainland. The archipelago formed during the thaw after the latest ice age. Fossilized remains of Homo erectness, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Homo sapience reached the region by around 45,000 years ago. Recent discoveries on the island of Flores were dubbed "Flores Man" (Homo florescence), a miniature hominid that grew only three feet tall, although whether this constitutes a separate species is still in dispute. Flores Man seems to have shared some islands with Java Man until only 10,000 years ago, when they became extinct.

Austronesian people form the majority of the modern population. They may have arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. Dong Son culture spread to Indonesia bringing with it techniques of wet-field rice cultivation, ritual buffalo sacrifice, bronze casting, megalithic practices, and ikat weaving methods. Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE, allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century CE.

History of Indonesia

Indonesia is an architectonic country of 17,508 islands (6,000 inhabited) stretching along the equator in South East Asia. The country's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade; trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. The area of Indonesia is populated by peoples of various migrations, creating a diversity of cultures, elasticities, and languages. The archipelago's landforms and climate significantly influenced agriculture and trade, and the formation of states.

Fossilized remains of Homo erectus, popularly known as the "Java Man", suggest the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited two million to 500,000 years ago. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, were originally from Taiwan and arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished bringing Hindu and Buddhist influences with it. The agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties subsequently thrived and declined in inland Java. The last significant non-Muslim kingdom, the Hindu Majapahit kingdom, flourished from the late 13th century, and its influence stretched over much of Indonesia. The earliest evidence of Islamised populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra; other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam which became the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences.

Europeans arrived in Indonesia from the 16th century seeking to monopolies the sources of valuable nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalized colony. By the early 20th century Dutch dominance extended to what was to become Indonesia's current boundaries. The Japanese invasion and subsequent occupation during WWII ended Dutch rule, and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, nationalist leader, Sukarno, declared independence and was appointed president. The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, but a bitter armed and diplomatic struggle ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognized Indonesian independence.

An attempted coup in 1965 led to a violent army-led anti-communist purge in which over half a million people were killed. General Suharto politically out-manoeuvred President Sukarno, and was formally appointed president in March 1968. His New Order administration garnered the favour of the West whose investment in Indonesia was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. In the late 1990s, however, Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the East Asian Financial Crisis which led to popular protests and Suharto's resignation on 21 May 1998. The Reformasi era following Suharto's resignation, has led to a strengthening of democratic processes, including a regional autonomy program, the secession of East Timor, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, natural disasters, and terrorism have slowed progress. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain problems in some areas.

Wednesday, August 25, 2010

Environment and Natural Resources Nature in East Timor East Timor is not so rich in natural resources

Low rainfall and soil less productive. However, one of the natural resources that can be take advantage - if exploited for economic East Timor - are the sources of gas and oil earth contained in the Timor Gap. Sources of wealth oil and gas in the Timor Gap is considered commensurate
sources the most productive in the world. If exported, the products that have value sustainable, such as organic coffee, can also generate foreign exchange. Ecotourism is also one one industry can play a key role on East Timor's economic development.
East Timorese are in the eastern part of Timor island, the dramatic topography, and dominated by
Ramelau mountains. Different from the islands neighbors, on the island of Timor there is no volcano. Island Timor is part of the continent being cut off. The ground derived from limestone and clay that have marine metamorphosed, and that no land sesubur
derived from volcanic rock. Of course, infertility is an inherent problem in the lands tropics, because of decomposition of organic materials occurred relatively easily and quickly. Moreover, the land area East Timor is a steep mountain slope is very broad,
and also tend to be shallow soil. Therefore, very easily eroded. Erosion problem is compounded
by deforestation and grazing. On rainy season, when high rainfall fitting, many top soil is lost. Continuous erosion causes sedimentation of rivers and reservoirs.
Because it is located in a rain shadow, East Timor very dry. Watershed in East Timor
halved by the middle of the mountains of East Timor. Because of the narrowness of the island of Timor, the flow of the river is very short, and only a few rivers
flow throughout the year. The northern part is very dry, and characterized by savanna grasslands that every year burned. According to current estimates, formerly East Timor covered by forest, which he lost due to berkembnagnya human civilization, and their activities which included the burning of forests and forest logging for planting, hunting and grazing.
causing the loss of most of the original forest. Now, the forest is very thin in East Timor, and the vegetation consists of forests that were planted back, savanna and grassland. Various aspects of the ecology flora and fauna of East Timor still needs to be examined more information.
Fauna of East Timor have this level of endemism the highest in the Northeast region. Although
Thus, many species of animals in East Timor threatened with extinction, especially the kinds of animals rely on dwindling forests due logging. Various kinds of marine animals are also threatened
extinct. Most of the coastal regions of East Timor votes still original. Mangrove ecosystems are still in good condition, and many beaches surrounded by coral reefs. Stone these corals have important ecological functions. The coral reef is also the source of the fishing industry in coastal areas, and as a potential tourist objects, has a key role in the development of ecotourism industry. At this time in East Timor did not have waste management system. This is what is
The main environmental problems in the area urban areas. For example, the city of Dili does not have good dirty water management system, as well as systems for collection and disposal of sewage in Dili. Sewage illegally in Dili and cause the piling garbage in the surrounding some particular place. Therefore there is no system waste management, water under the ground-water sources drinking population of Dili - become contaminated. Sustainable development can not be considered
if the impacts of climate change are numerous. Climate change caused by global warming has caused many disasters that affect health and living conditions many people around world.

Babad Tanah Jawi

Babad Tanah Jawi
Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the land of Java"), is a generic title for a large number of manuscripts written in Javanese language. Their arrangements and details vary, and no copies of any of the manuscripts are older than the eighteenth century.

Due to the scarcity and limitations of primary historical records, Babad Tanah Jawi, is one of a number of accounts of Indonesian legends that scholars use to help illuminate aspects of the spread of Islam in Indonesia, the dominant religion in the Indonesian archipelago since the sixteenth century.

The texts attribute the first Javanese conversions to Islam to the Wali Sanga ("nine saints"), although their names and relationships vary across the texts to the extent that perfect reduction and agreement between them is not possible. Although most of the manuscripts accept the convention of nine saints, a number list ten. These names commonly appear throughout the Babad Tanah Jawi.
Babad Tanah Jawi


Tuban is famous for its unique batik, locally known as Batik Gedog. Typical motifs are sea animals in dark colours such as blue and purple. There is a traditional Chinese temple named Klenteng by the beach, which is visited by many local tourists from Surabaya and environs, especially when Imlek, the Chinese New Year is celebrated.
Tuban is known as the "City of a Thousand Caves" since there are so many caves in the area, containing both stalagtites and stalagmites. Famous caves such as Goa Akbar and Goa Maharani (which contains sophisticated pre-formed statues believed to be natural by young and old) are located near the city. Besides, there are many recreational sites worth visiting, such as Goa Ngerong, a natural swimming pool called Pemandian Alam Bektiharjo, a waterfall named Air Terjun Nglirip, and the beach and pier for young couples, Pantai Boom.
Tuban is also well-known for its beverage tuak, strong palm wine taken from the Aren tree (called uwit bogor) served in large bamboo mugs called centak. Historically, the Tubanese used tuak as a strategic weapon against the colonial invaders, who were unable to fight when inebriated. Its non-alcoholic variety named Legen is drunk by women and children. Tuak and a kind of gin named arak are also served at traditional dance parties known as Tayuban or Sindiran, at which heavily made-up and padded female entertainers called Waranggono sing satirical songs and dance with paying males till the break of dawn, accompanied by a small gamelan orchestra. The dance movements are a vulgarised version of the Central Javanese palatial dance style known as Srimpi. One of the most notable of these entertainers, Nyi Sumini, was selected as one of five representatives to perform at Jakarta's Taman Mini Indonesia Indah park. One of Indonesia's most famous and prolific pop bands, Koes Plus, hailed from Tuban.
The most luxurious hotel in town, the Hotel Mustika was burnt to the ground when riots broke out after one of the candidates accused his opponents of having framed the outcome of the local elections to decide who would become the next regent or Bupati. The first female candidate in Tuban's history, Haeny Relawati, won and the instigator of the riots has been imprisoned.

Story of Sunan Giri

According to the History Of Banten, a foreign holy man, Molana Usalam comes to Balambangan in the Eastern Salient of Java where Islam was not established until the eighteenth century. The daughter of Balambangan's ruler is critically ill, but recovers when Molana Usalam gives her betel nut to chew. She is given to Molana Usalam in marriage but Molana Usalam declines the offer when the princess refuses to adopt his religion of Islam. Moalana Usalam leaves the pregnant princess when he departs Balambangan. Her son is subsequently thown into the sea in a chest, similar to the story of Moses as found in the Bible and sura XX of the Qur'an. The chest was pulled out of the sea at Gresik and the boy is raised as a Muslim. He becomes the first Sunan of Giri.
Story of Sunan Giri

History of Banten

History of Banten
("History of Banten") is a Javanese texts containing stories of conversion to Islam in Indonesia. The manuscripts of the chronicle date from the late nineteenth century, although two are known to be copies written from the originals in the 1730s and 1740s.

Due to the scarcity and limitations of primary historical records, History of banten, is one of a number of accounts of Indonesian legends that scholars use to help illuminate aspects of the spread of Islam in Indonesia, the dominant religion in the Indonesian archipelago since the sixteenth century. Similar to the In Indonesian Language Babad Tanah Jawi ("History of the Land of Java"), History Of Banten, there are magical events, however, conversions are not specifically described nor is there emphasis on formal and tangible conversion rituals such as The Confession of Faith and circumcision.
History of Banten

Tuesday, August 24, 2010


There are two universities in Tuban, Universitas Sunan Bonang and the recently established Universitas Ronggolawe, which started as a Teacher Training College named IKIP PGRI TUBAN. Voluntary Service Overseas posted a number of ELT volunteers to train local counterparts from 1989 onwards, followed by teachers from Volunteers in Asia, all warmly received as the only Westerners (called Londo, derived from the Javanese word for Belanda  Dutch) in town.


Tuban is famous for tobacco and hardwood teak production. PT Semen Gresik, a major state-owned cement company, opened the largest cement factory in Indonesia in Tuban in 1994. A petrochemical plant operated by Trans-Pacific Petrochemical Indotama (TPPI) opened in 2006 after several years of delays.

Monday, August 23, 2010


The town's name has been derived from the following story: a mythical pair of birds flying from Majapahit to Demak dropped a precious heirloom stone on the town thereafter named Tuban based on the Javanese phrase "waTU tiBAN", which means "stone fallen from the sky". Another explanation refers to flooding ("TU BANyu" meaning "water streaming out") that occurred when the aristocratic Islamic scholar Raden Dandang Wacana entered the Papringan Forest, discovering an old well near the seaside that miraculously contained freshwater. The name has furthermore been derived from "Tubo", meaning poison, in keeping with the name of a Tubanese subdistrict named Jenu to this day, which carries the same meaning.

The official history of Tuban began in the Majapahit era in the 13th century. There was once an important ceremony when the king of Majapahit crowned Ronggolawe as the principal of the Tuban region. It was held on 12 November 1293 and that date has become the anniversary of Tuban, making it more ancient than Surabaya. Tuban's 700th anniversary was celebrated with a grand parade of decorated floats in 1993. The spread of Islam was pioneered by Sunan Bonang and his follower named Sunan Kalijaga, who was the son of the Tubanese principal in the 13th century.

Sunday, August 22, 2010


Tuban is a town located on the north coast of Java, approximately 100 km west of Surabaya, the capital of East Java. Tuban is surrounded by Lamongan in the east, Bojonegoro in the south and Rembang, Central Java in the west.

As an ancient town, Tuban is of considerable historical and cultural value. The most prominent feature is the beauty of the scenery such as beaches, caves, and forests, especially the teak forest.

Tuban was formerly an important port in the Majapahit era and is mentioned in Chinese records from the eleventh century. An ancient anchor from one of Kublai Khan's ships is preserved in the historical museum. Tuban is believed to have been Islamised before its conquest by Demak c. 1527. Even following its Islamisation, it remained loyal to Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit in the interior. The grave of Sunan Bonang, a sixteenth-century Islamic missionary - one of the Wali Sanga involved in the initial spread of Islam in Java, is located in Tuban. This site is an important destination for Muslim pilgrims.

Saturday, August 21, 2010

The spread of Islam in Indonesia

Although Muslim traders first traveled through South East Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamized populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra. Although it is known that the spread of Islam began in the west of the archipelago, the fragmentary evidence does not suggest a rolling wave of conversion through adjacent areas; rather, it suggests the process was complicated and slow.[19] The spread of Islam was driven by increasing trade links outside of the archipelago; in general, traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were the first to adopt the new religion.

Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam, making it the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.[20] Only Bali retained a Hindu majority. In the eastern archipelago, both Christian and Islamic missionaries were active in the 16th and 17th centuries, and, currently, there are large communities of both religions on these islands.


Name: Sutomo

Born in Surabaya, East Java, October 3, 1920 -

Died in Padang Arafah, Saudi Arabia, October 7th, 1981 at the age of 61 years

Better known by the people familiar with the greeting as Bung Tomo hero who is famous for his role in inspiring the people to resist the return of Dutch colonial army of NICA a free ride through the Allied armies (UK), which ended with the battle of 10 November 1945, which until now celebrated as the Day Heroes.

There is no single sentence that offends the role of Muslims in the first series of dioramas Museum Heros Mandala. In fact, this is just one example, the fighting in Surabaya, 10 November 1945 Declaration of Jihad initiated by the scholars as Java in October 1945 to expel invaders are determined to regain Indonesia.

Role of the burning spirit of Bung Tomo arek-arek Suroboyo with jihad speeches in front of the funnel RRI Surabaya, with the Takbir repeatedly screamed "Allahu Akbar" resounded in the air until City of Heroes was also not mentioned at all. Whereas almost all arek-arek Suroboyo willing to sacrifice body and soul because it solely based on the spirit of jihad fi sabilillah, not the other spirit.


Brothers commoners throughout Indonesia, especially, the brothers residents of Surabaya city. We all already know that today the British army have been spreading pamphlets that provide a threat to us all. We are required to specify in their time, gave us the weapons seized from Japanese troops.

They have asked that we come at them with raised hands. They have asked that we all come to them in carrying white flags to signal their surrender.

The brothers, in past battles, we all have to show that the people of Indonesia in Surabaya, the young men who came from the Moluccas, the young men who come from Sulawesi, the young men who came from the island of Bali, the young men who originated from Kalimantan, the youths from all over Sumatra, Aceh youth, youth Tapanuli & all youth in Surabaya, Indonesia was, in their forces with their respective forces that shaped the people in the villages, have shown a defense that can not be diabolic, have shown a strength that they were stuck everywhere.

Just because a cunning tactic than they were, brothers and sisters by bringing the president and other leaders to Surabaya, we were subject to stop the fighting. But at that time they have strengthened themselves, and after strong now here it is.

Gentlemen, we all, our nation is in Surabaya, Indonesia will accept this challenge of the British army. And if the leadership of British troops in Surabaya want to listen to the response of the Indonesian people, wanted to hear answers to all the young people of Indonesia in Surabaya. Hear this, O British soldier, was the answer of the people of Surabaya, Indonesia is the answer to you young gentlemen.

Hi British soldiers!

You wish that we will take the white flag of surrender to you, tell us to raise their hands to come to you, you told us to bring the weapons we took from Japan to be handed to you.

That demand, although we know that you're all going to threaten us to attack and destroy us with all the force there. But this is our answer: During the Indonesian bulls still have the red blood that can make a piece of white cloth into the red & white, so long as we wish it would not surrender to anyone!

The brothers of the people of Surabaya, ready precarious situation but I warn you again, do not start shooting, just when we shot, we'll replace it attacked them.

We show that we are really people who want to be independent. And for us, brethren, we are better than no independent devastated. Our motto remains: FREE or DIE.

And we believe, brethren, in the end victory will surely fall into our hands because God is always on the right side, believe me brothers and sisters, God will protect us all

Allahu Akbar ..!

Allahu Akbar ..!

Allahu Akbar ...!


And this is not the only one. Another diorama is tasteless illustrates the struggle of Indonesian Muslims history is a diorama of Ambarawa Theater, December 15, 1945. Inside the yellow plates that contain information about the Theater marginally Ambarawa, no concern at all offensive about the role of scholars and army troops Santri which is really a power hitter core of the British forces, representatives of the Allied forces, who had just drunk a victory in the War World War II.

Islamic historians from Bandung, Ahmad Mansyur Suryanegara, relates, "Our history is not written correctly about Ambarawa Theater. And that momentum is a momentum which is very important, because that's when students led troops repelled the scholars of British troops who are winning the War troops World War II.

Santri troops also captured a number of relics of the Dutch fort and make the Allies led by Maj. Gen. Hawthron, Commander 23 Indian Division, fled helter-skelter toward the warships in the harbor those who lean Semarang. "

Friday, August 20, 2010

Singhasari and Majapahit

Despite a lack of historical evidence, it is known that Majapahit was the most dominant of Indonesia's pre-Islamic states.[17] The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada it experienced what is often referred to as a "Golden Age" in Indonesian history,[18] when its influence extended to much of southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali[citation needed] from about 1293 to around 1500.

The founder of the Majapahit Empire, Kertarajasa, was the son-in-law of the ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, also based in Java. After Singhasari drove Srivijaya out of Java in 1290, the rising power of Singhasari came to the attention of Kublai Khan in China and he sent emissaries demanding tribute. Kertanagara, ruler of the Singhasari kingdom, refused to pay tribute and the Khan sent a punitive expedition which arrived off the coast of Java in 1293. By that time, a rebel from Kediri, Jayakatwang, had killed Kertanagara. The Majapahit founder allied himself with the Mongols against Jayakatwang and, once the Singhasari kingdom was destroyed, turned and forced his Mongol allies to withdraw in confusion.

Gajah Mada, an ambitious Majapahit prime minister and regent from 1331 to 1364, extended the empire's rule to the surrounding islands. A few years after Gajah Madah's death, the Majapahit navy captured Palembang, putting an end to the Srivijayan kingdom. Although the Majapahit rulers extended their power over other islands and destroyed neighbouring kingdoms, their focus seems to have been on controlling and gaining a larger share of the commercial trade that passed through the archipelago. About the time Majapahit was founded, Muslim traders and proselytisers began entering the area. After its peak in the 14th century, Majapahit power began to decline and was unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from 1478 to 1520. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royal family moved east to the island of Bali at the end of Majapahit power.

Thursday, August 19, 2010


Prambanan in Java
Medang or previously known as Mataram was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java around modern-day Yogyakarta between the 8th and 10th centuries. The centre of the kingdom was moved from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok. The move may have been caused by an eruption of the volcano Mount Merapi, or a power struggle.

The first king of Mataram was Sri Sanjaya and left inscriptions in stone.[9] The monumental Hindu temple of Prambanan in the vicinity of Yogyakarta was built by Daksa. Dharmawangsa ordered the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese in 996.

The kingdom collapsed into chaos at the end of Dharmawangsa's reign under military pressure from Srivijaya. One of the last major kings of Mataram was Airlangga who reigned from 1016 until 1049.[10] Airlangga was a son of Udayana of Bali and a relative of Dharmawangsa re-established the kingdom including Bali under the name of Kahuripan.

Monday, August 16, 2010

Americans celebrate the independence of Indonesia to participate-65

NEW YORK, Government of the United States (U.S.) to celebrate the history of Indonesia is so rich and praised the democratization process that had been built by Indonesia.

"Changes in Indonesia into a country with a flourishing democracy and the institutions have strong and growing civil society denote inspiration for the world community," said Minister of Foreign Affairs of the United States, Hillary Rodham Clinton, in a message delivered by the U.S. State Department in Washington , as reported by the page Depkominfo, Monday (16/08/2010).

Government of the United States on Saturday (08/14/2010) conveyed congratulations to the Independence Day-65th August 17 with a look at this upcoming Indonesia has become an inspiration for countries in the world in the field of democracy.

"On behalf of President Obama and the people of the United States, I congratulate the people of Indonesia in commemorating the 65th Independence Day on August 17," said Hillary.

He added that the shared values that held the U.S. and Indonesia have formed the basis of cooperation in various fields, from regional security issues and the war on terrorism until the aspect of improving educational opportunities and promote economic development.

Indonesia is one of the first country visited by President Clinton after Barack Obama elected as U.S. Secretary of State last year.

"Comprehensive partnership between the U.S. and Indonesia, which recently launched a historic moment in relations between the two countries," said Hllary.

U.S., he continued, determined to continue to enhance mutually beneficial relationships and build a sustainable cooperation with Indonesia on issues of bilateral, regional and global.

"To all the people of Indonesia, I congratulated commemorate Independence Day with a safe and happy and hopefully in the coming year is always in peace and prosperity," said Hillary.


Saturday, August 14, 2010

Colonial era

Beginning in the 16th century, successive waves of Europeans—the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and British sought to dominate the spice trade at its sources in India and the 'Spice Islands' (Maluku) of Indonesia. This meant finding a way to Asia to cut out Muslim merchants who, with their Venetian outlet in the Mediterranean, monopolized spice imports to Europe. Astronomically priced at the time, spices were highly coveted not only to preserve and make poorly preserved meat palatable, but also as medicines and magic potions.

The arrival of Europeans in South East Asia is often regarded as the watershed moment in its history. Other scholars consider this view untenable, arguing that European influence during the times of the early arrivals of the sixteenth and 17th centuries was limited in both area and depth. This is in part due to Europe not being the most advanced or dynamic area of the world in the early 15th century. Rather, the major expansionist force of this time was Islam; in 1453, for example, the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople, while Islam continued to spread through Indonesia and the Philippines. European influence, particularly that of the Dutch, would not have its greatest impact on Indonesia until the 18th and 19th centuries.

Independence War

Independence War
Between the years 1945 to 1949, the union of Australia who sympathized with the independence of Indonesia banned all Dutch shipping in the Netherlands during this conflict that does not have any going well logistical support necessary to restore colonial rule in Indonesia.

Dutch efforts to return power to face great opposition. After returning to Java, Dutch tentera forces soon recaptured the capital city of Batavia, with the result that the nationalists made as Yogyakarta as the capital of their country. At 27 December 1949, after four years of warfare and negotiations, Queen Juliana of the Netherlands transferred sovereignty to the Indonesian government's Guild. In 1950, Indonesia became the experts to-60 Growth United Nations.

Sign of independence

Sign of independence
Hearing The news that Japan no longer have the power to make decisions like the one above, Sukarno reading "Independence Perisytiharan Republic of Indonesia" the next day, namely 17 Ogos 1945. News about independence perisytiharaan disseminated through radio and minutes, while the armed tentera Indonesia, Force Defenders of the Fatherland (PETA), as well as the youth and others set out to preserve Sukarno's residence.

At 29 Ogos 1945, the collection is inaugurated as President Sukarno of Indonesia, with Mohammad Hatta as answers through symbol designed several days earlier. Later formed the Central Indonesian National Jawatankuasa (KNIP) as a temporary parliament so that the choice of the public highway can be executed. Collection of the new government Rest ordered Ogos 31, with the Republic of Indonesia consists of fruit than eight provinces, namely:

* Sumatra
* Borneo (excluding the territory of Sabah, Sarawak, and Brunei)
* Java, namely West Java, Central Java and East Java
* Sulawesi
* Moluccas (including West Irian / Papua)
* Nusa Tenggara.

Dutch East Indies colonial Sarekat

Dutch East Indies Sarekat logo
Dutch East Indies colonial Sarekat

Starting in 1602, the Dutch use to the divisions between the small kingdoms that had replaced Majapahit, and Step by Step become the ruler who is now the Indonesian region. The only one not affected is that of Portuguese Timor remains dominated by the Portuguese so that in 1975 when he joined with Indonesia to become one with the name of a province of East Timor. The Dutch controlled Indonesia for nearly 350 years except for two brief Royal Palace, which is smaller than Indonesia as a party controlled by Britain after Britain Javanese-Dutch War, and during Jepun occupation during World War II. When colonizing Indonesia, Netherlands East Indies Netherlands developed into one of the richest imperialist power in the world. For sesetengah people during 350 years of Dutch colonial rule is a myth kerana newly conquered territory of Aceh after the Dutch and then approached kemuflisan.

In the 17th century and 18th century, the Dutch East Indies are not controlled directly by the Dutch government but by the trade Sarekat named Sarekat Dutch East Indies (Dutch: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie or VOC). VOC has been given monopoly rights to trade and colonial activities in the area by the Dutch parliament in 1602, with officials in Batavia mother who is now named Jakarta.

The main objective of the Dutch East Indies Sarekat is to maintain a monopoly on trade rempahnya in the archipelago. This is done through the use of threats of violence against the residents in planting spice islands, and towards non-Dutch people who Try trade with the resident. For example, when the population of the Banda Islands continue to sell to traders nutmeg English, Dutch tentera force to kill or drive out almost its entire population, with servants or slaves who worked in the nutmeg plantations then Delivers to stay in the islands instead.

Sarekat Dutch East Indies became involved in politics depths of Java in this period, and fought in several wars involving the leaders of Mataram and Banten.

Hindu Buddhist kingdoms

Starting from the 4th century in the kingdom of Kutai in East Kalimantan exactly is the first Hindu kingdom in the archipelago. then development continues between the 7th century until the 14th century, Buddhism, Srivijaya kingdom in Sumatra growing rapidly. I Ching, the explorer of China, visited the capital city of Palembang in the years around 670. At the peak of its glory, the Srivijaya controlled as far as West Java and Estate Melayu Peninsula. 14th century also shows the rise of a Hindu kingdom in East Java, the Majapahit. Between the years 1331 until 1364, Gadjah Mada University, the governor of Majapahit, overran the territory which is now a settled some amount of Indonesia together nearly the entire peninsula Malays. The legacy of the era, including Gadjah Mada inauguration laws and Javanese culture, as seen in the novel Strong Ramayana.

Indonesia's early history

Indian scholars have written about Dwipantara or Dwipa Javanese Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra around 200 BC. Kingdom of West Java more specifically mastered in about the year 400, with the arrival of Buddhism in the area during the year 425.

In the Age of Reform Europe, Java and Sumatra have have inherited a civilization thousands of years old and along the two great kingdoms.

Indonesian Prehistoric

Geologically, the territory of Indonesia Modern emerged roughly around the Pleistocene era when the region was still connected with the Asian mainland. The region's first settlers was a man known to Java at the time of around 500 000 years ago. Indonesian archipelago, as there is currently formed during the melting of Ais ais after the end of Age.

Friday, August 13, 2010

The Sultanate of Banten

In 1524-25, Sunan Gunung Jati from Cirebon, together with the armies of Demak Sultanate, seized the port of Banten from the Sunda kingdom, and established The Sultanate of Banten. This was accompanied by Muslim preachers and the adoption of Islam amongst the local population. At its peak in the first half of the 17th century, the Sultanate lasted from 1526 to 1813 AD. The Sultanate left many archaeological remains and historical records.

Thursday, August 12, 2010

Sultanate of Mataram

The Sultanate of Mataram was the third Sultanate in Java, after the Sultanate of Demak Bintoro and the Sultanate of Pajang.

According to Javanese records, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan became the ruler of the Mataram area in the 1570s with the support of the kingdom of Pajang to the east, near the current site of Surakarta (Solo). Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram after his ascension.

Pamanahan's son, Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga, replaced his father on the throne around 1584. Under Senapati the kingdom grew substantially through regular military campaigns against Mataram's neighbors. Shortly after his accession, for example, he conquered his father's patrons in Pajang.

The reign of Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak (c. 1601-1613), the son of Senapati, was dominated by further warfare, especially against powerful Surabaya, already a major center in East Java. The first contact between Mataram and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occurred under Krapyak. Dutch activities at the time were limited to trading from limited coastal settlements, so their interactions with the inland Mataram kingdom were limited, although they did form an alliance against Surabaya in 1613. Krapyak died that year.

Krapyak was succeeded by his son, who is known simply as Sultan Agung ("Great Sultan") in Javanese records. Agung was responsible for the great expansion and lasting historical legacy of Mataram due to the extensive military conquests of his long reign from 1613 to 1646.

After years of war Agung finally conquered Surabaya. The city surrounded by land and sea and starved it into submission. With Surabaya brought into the empire, the Mataram kingdom encompassed all of central and eastern Java, and Madura; only in the west did Banten and the Dutch settlement in Batavia remain outside Agung's control. He tried repeatedly in the 1620s and 1630s to drive the Dutch from Batavia, but his armies had met their match, and he was forced to share control over Java.

In 1645 he began building Imogiri, his burial place, about fifteen kilometers south of Yogyakarta. Imogiri remains the resting place of most of the royalty of Yogyakarta and Surakarta to this day. Agung died in the spring of 1646, with his image of royal invincibility shattered by his losses to the Dutch, but he did leave behind an empire that covered most of Java and its neighboring islands.

Upon taking the throne, Agung's son Susuhunan Amangkurat I tried to bring long-term stability to Mataram's realm, murdering local leaders that were insufficiently deferential to him, and closing ports so he alone had control over trade with the Dutch.

By the mid-1670s dissatisfaction with the king fanned into open revolt. Raden Trunajaya, a prince from Madura, lead a revolt fortified by itinerant mercenaries from Makassar that captured the king's court at Mataram in mid-1677. The king escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king Amangkurat II, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram. Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunajaya looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in East Java leaving Puger in control of a weak court.

Amangkurat I died just after his expulsion, making Amangkurat II king in 1677. He too was nearly helpless, though, having fled without an army or treasury to build one. In an attempt to regain his kingdom, he made substantial concessions to the Dutch, who then went to war to reinstate him. For the Dutch, a stable Mataram empire that was deeply indebted to them would help ensure continued trade on favorable terms. They were willing to lend their military might to keep the kingdom together. Dutch forces first captured Trunajaya, then forced Puger to recognize the sovereignty of his elder brother Amangkurat II.

Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Dengue Sampit

Beginning of the riots:

Ethnic riots erupted in Sampit since the assassination of several residents of Madura in the housing complex is located in the northern suburbs Sampit conducted by a group of provocateurs paid by each of the two local government officials and Forest Service Sampit. The incident occurred a week at midnight (Saturday night 02/17/2001) at around 23:00 pm when the victim was sleeping soundly. Madurese citizens residing in terkejud events and emotions surrounding the bait because they feel in danger and being he attacked by a group of Dayaks, and they take vengeance until Have dane clashes which claimed dozens of casualties. With this event residents do not stay silent dayak them directly establish murder and arson against houses of Madurese people.

On Sunday morning I was contact via telephone to an aunt and uncle who live on the street S. Parman Sampit inquire about these events and their effects on society in general Sampit city. Aunt even mediocre and does not have estimates that the clashes will spread, even he says "it's okay and safe, because there are events in the suburbs" he emphasized. At the same day that contacted a close friend who was on the street Sampit Samuda asked about the incident. He also answered in tune with the answer to my aunt. In the Morning day, I did contact again to her uncle and Answers not much different from yesterday answers. Unlike my friends who answer contact on that day, he said the state of emergency and widespread riots and there was an additional victim of the two parties. On Tuesday, do contact me back, but the phone had no answer. Then my friend Call in-law's house and by chance he had been hiding in there and he Said that situation is very tense because of a Dayak people came from all directions at once and the hinterland of Central Kalimantan and overwhelmed officials could not stem the flow of their be shut in. Madurese people who are not conscious and did not expect that they will eventually be cleaned from Sampit frenzy and panic, because it was attacked by a Dayak complete with various sharp weapons. So victims were lay without a head falling on houses and on the streets every corner of the town of Sampit. Dayak people doing large-scale swepping to all houses without exception and kill every person who is suspected of Madurese regardless of gender or age. So residents of Madurese who stuck siege Dayaks and could not evacuate themselves were soft targets brunt tobak and saber.

Before the ethnic Dayak attacks they gathered together to strive and vow to scrape out the ethnic Madurese from Kal-Teng, which started from Sampit.

For morale mengobar Dayak, Dayak The provocateurs to spread hatred among them against the people of Madura. They said: "Citizens must be abolished from Madura, Kal-Teng, so that no power in the ethnic Madurese Kal-Teng".

The latest information (early Monday morning 25 / 2) which I received from the district. Samuda (40 km from Sampit) Madurese residents said that erosion is happening right now in the capital of Palangkaraya city and its surroundings.

Dayaks in doing have no sense of humanity not enough to spend the lives of innocent Madurese, but set fire to houses, business places, mosques, educational institutions, Moslem-boarding schools and others built by the Madurese .

Sampit bloody tragedy was the aftermath of the tragedy of sambas with careful planning.

Since Sambas erupted inland Dayak people have been holding talks to take the offensive against the ethnic Madurese. This was revealed from the description of my sister in law - but by chance a bloody Dayak ancestors had converted to Islam - to work as food merchants who every day back and forth into the hinterland of Central Kalimantan (Rantau Pulot and surroundings). Sister in law is often put forward the reasons that these plans should the abort, because according to him, the Madurese are good people and some among them who do evil things like other tribes, he said. In fact, he himself admitted that his wife comes from a good family of the Madurese. However, the Dayaks are still at its inception and said that they will not disturb his wife. About Dayat evil plans are often expressed by my brother-in-law to our family. A few days before the riots erupted Sampit my sister in law came home from the outback soon Kal-Teng with menyarter speed board and leave the countryside to preach kiloton be evil plans and my brother in law Dayak menyerankan to the whole family to sell the property may be sold before the event occurs, but families did not heed such advice.

Before the incident erupted Kerengpangi (some [pa Sampit weeks before the event) was santar issue that the Dayaks would attack the Madurese, and the issue intensively because  my dad's friend who is also a former member of the regional House of Palangkaraya often instruct and advise if there will be Dayak attacks then my family should take refuge in his house in Palangkaraya. It also strengthens the tragedy Sampit perencenaan before erupting.

Two days After Tragedy Sampit erupted Dayaks from different directions and remote hinterland of Central Kalimantan, in waves and flooding the city in droves to do destroy Sampit of ethnic Madurese. This is a real indication of the evil planning.

Tragedy And when news spread to every corner Sampit, attacks on the ethnic Madurese in remote-Lancaster Village them, up to hundreds of victims. Therefore it is not wrong to mention the various madia the death toll of more than 200 people. The actual death toll is much greater than expected, because many of the Madurese are spread in various districts and in remote corners of the district. East Kotawaringin as farmers and farm, and they did not escape the rampage targets the Dayaks.

One day after the outbreak of Dengue Sampit Dayak community in Palangkaraya demonstrative demand that the local government to expel all the ethnic Madurese from the province of Kal-Teng.

The authorities did not act decisively against troublemakers.

Police and army troops are stationed in Sampit cowardly act does not even provide protection to the Madurese. This is evident from their inability to stem the flow of the rioters came flooding Dayak Sampit city and let them do sweeping home-house and take out the soul of each person who allegedly from the ethnic Madurese, regardless of whether it was a baby, jumpo person, male or women. Even attacks that Escalate to various districts and corners very easily done by the rioters Dayak no prevention efforts or the assertiveness of the apparatus. Beritindak authorities should firmly against any rioters who enter the territory of their duties indiscriminately. Even the lack of stress apparatus rose with the release of dozens of prisoners seemed Dayak ethnic rioters and let them join the other rioters to murder. And the ambush and murder not only in the town of Sampit in concentration course, even in the city since the riots erupted simultaneously Sampit in other sub-districts made the same attack, and freely without any act of prevention and assertive of their forces to kill and mengahncurkan all property and homes the ethnic Madurese. Yesterday (Sunday, 02/25/2001) my telephone contact with one of the ethnic population of Banjar in Sampit to get the latest on the city Sampit Beside the man gripping Give Information that Sampit The refugees who took refuge in the surrounding regional government offices sedah food shortages and has many victims who fell dead of starvation. Meanwhile, rioters continued to flood flows Sampit and they entered the attack to the district. Samuda 40 km. From Sampit that there are ethnic Madurese people scattered in a very large quantity estimated at more than 1000 households. While hiding place atrau FUNCTIONING there does not exist. And vandals had done over there without any destruction apparatus that prevents or act decisively against them. Even the largest pesanteren Kec. This-which is also where I first nyantri-have disintegrated. None of the ethnic Madurese rumapenduduk but battered to death. And from Beside that I get from this ethnic group in district Banjar (early today, Monday 26 / 2) that the mob had reached the village Parebok dayak (Kec. Samuda), and there they had a fight and there was a victim of the two sides. Because of the rioters are not capable, then again two Dayak sending trucks to the village, and ultimately they can break the resistance of ethnic Madurese.

Dayak ethnic rioters from those using the red badge on the head, hands and spears they carry.

Evacuation or expulsion?

The government's insistence that the local Dayak ethnic Madurese expelled from the Kal-Teng said, they do continue to voice their demands for Kal-Teng police chief resign and be replaced with another, eventually instructed the police chief of all the staff of the Sampit and urged the District to immediately flee into the ethnic Madurese in Madura safety reasons. Even in Kuala Wasters Kapolsek very ketakuatan when he heard an order from his superiors to make them immediately to evacuate and evacuate the ethnic Madurese from Kuala Wasters (district capitals. Seruyan 150 km downstream from Sampit) to java. Even in Palangkaraya alone made the ethnic Madurese refugees to Banjarmasin after scare them.

Sampit riots nuanced religious sentiment and the Dayak community as a means to an end.

Madurese people living in Kal-Teng since fifty years ago and peaceful coexistence with the local ethnic (Banjar and Dayak), no perselisahan among them so they live as the locals like. Keharmunisan relationship between two parties and it seems increasingly clear with the increasing number of married cross (Dayak-Madura, Madura-Banjar) among them. So do not be surprised if Muslim men from marrying women Dayak ethnic Madurese ethnic origin or otherwise. Criminality in the form of murder, gambling and theft carried out by various ethnic groups not only from the ethnic Madurese, which often happens is that even among the ethnic Madurese murder itself was not among the ethnic Madurese with other ethnic groups. Then why the riots took place and even riots in Sampit provoked by two civil servants are non-Islamic religion? Then why arson and murder done to all the ethnic Madurese people indiscriminately? Why are the mosques, Islamic schools, houses of innocent citizens madurese Kia even Madura dihabisin origin? Do not we know that many boarding schools in the Kal-Teng was founded by the Madurese, even boarding schools are owned by residents of Madura terbesarpun? Why are the ethnic Madurese target? A Doter-now serving at one famous hospital in Jakarta, who also serves as the da `I during his period in Central Kalimantan (Kuala Wasters and Pangkalanbun) in a few years ago, said that the tribe is a tribe of Madura is the weakest in Kal-Teng. They have no organizational ties or a container community of ethnic Madurese, because they already feel a part of the original inhabitants of Kalimantan, so they merged with the Communities component decays there. On the other hand they are a memperbengkak komonitas komonitas number of Muslims Kal-Teng, bringing the total number of Muslims Kal-Teng reach over 80%. Namu immej who leveled the surface is that the people of Islam in the Kal-Teng is a resident menoritas, because the important agencies in local government controlled many non-Muslims (Christians Dayak). Christianizing efforts in Kalimantan is very slow and may be regarded as a failure. The Dayak mesionaris finally chose as targets and tools to achieve goals. Dayaks who had converted to Christianity dikader to play a role in the process of Christianization and rid the people of Islam or at least, away from generations of Islamic moral values of Islam. For example, Kec. Downstream Seruyan (Kuala Wasters) a majority of 96% of the population are Muslims, which consists of various ethnic Banjar, Madurese, Dayak and Bugis. Its location is very strategic, because it is a transit city for inland areas. In the district. This former brothel no place, no place of gambling, no liquor retail outlets and no church. However, after the position is held by a helper Regents of the Dayak ethnic Christian whose wife is a missionary, the church Founded, organized prostitution and gambling, liquor sales license is given (to the Chinese descent), which resulted in the destruction of good character even has a lot of local generation invited numerous protests from local community leaders. In fact, after its term ended he chose to become a stap from the move from Kuala Wasters and became patron places such vices. Worse, when the streets of Kuala Sampit-Wasters can dioprasikan, the person is trying to open a new brothel in km. 7 near the village of ethnic Madurese despite loud protests waged by the village heads and local community leaders. He even offered a Kijang car to head home village allowed the plan. He sarcastically said "People do not like the saints Madura crowd!"

When SMU NI Wasters Kuala Dayak headed by Christians, many high school kids who go to school in a state of intoxicated (drunk). They were eventually driven out by Muslim teachers. But Kep. Sek. Prohibit actions that teachers and she told them "let them get drunk home school!".

Madurese living in Kalimantan-Central (as well in other areas) none of them are not Muslim and they have an important role in strengthening the position of Islam in Kalimantan. This was evidenced by mosques and Islamic schools and madrassas that they have built. In fact, for the majority of Kal-Teng Founded by the ethnic Madurese boarding schools, even the largest in any Sampit and in Palangkaraya pesantren led by the ethnic Madurese, which is now sold out diamuk ethnic Dayaks.

For those who still adhered to the Dayak community Kaharingan trust (19%) (Animesme) religious difference is not really a problem and they never fidgety with the development of Islam in Kalimantan, because it is the ethnic Madurese and other ethnic groups have never bothered them, and if they convert to Islam rose because of their willingness. But with different ethnic Dayak already dikader become missionaries by the Protestant Batak in the interior. Christian Dayak is used as smitten by them to achieve their objectives. To achieve these objectives, the Association was formed as Community Dayak Dayak container strength. Therefore, when timeng time to plan the plots, the community of Christian Dayak dayak Animesme and gather into a strength.

Regional Autonomy kekhatiran Menimbukan Christian Dayaks.

Recently I contacted a friend of Samuda (early Monday morning 25 / 2) that the issues they spread among the Dayak ethnic expand and to strengthen jiw instilled a fighting spirit and a deep hatred against the ethnic Madurese are "concerns that local autonomy is already running, then the ruling is the ethnic Madurese. "If we do not eliminate the ethnic Madurese dilkuasi them then we will." So now it happens in Palangkaraya what happened in Sampit and now they began to move into the district. Western Kotawaringin (Pangkalanbun and surroundings). And they instructed the Dayak rioters to burn every house and other buildings which allegedly belong to ethnic Madurese who have left its inhabitants fled.

Though there Madurese ethnic majority are farmers and gardeners, and very few of them are in Government and who become entrepreneurs.

APPEAL and invitation:
Through this paper we call for the people of Central Kalimantan:

   One. The government must immediately stop the killing and extermination of the Muslim Madurese in Kal-Teng.
   2. Urged the authorities not acted firmly biased or be a coward.
   3. Calls upon the Government to provide food and health assistance to the refugees who nearly tens of thousands of lives.
   4. Appeal to human rights NGOs to immediately conduct investigation against human rights violations in Sampit.
   5. Urging the Government and law enforcement authorities to immediately prosecute Sampit provocateur who masterminded the riots.
   6. Appeal to the leaders of political parties and leaders of Islamic organizations to Government urged to stop the unrest in the Kal-Teng and act decisively.
   7. Inviting Muslims everywhere to immediately conduct a defense to the brothers who believe that now is being exterminated by the Christian Dayaks and its supporters.
   8. Tabligh Akbar called for held for preaching what actually is happening to Muslims in the Kal-Teng Madura.

This paper was written with honestly by
H. Musthofa Aini. Lc. Graduate Student in one of the UNV. Islam in Jakarta.
Sampit original residents of the Madurese.
The author continues to make direct contact every day to the various ethical (Banjar and Javanese) at Sampit to ask for updated information about the riot.
The author also returned from Sampit few weeks ago before the tragedy Sampit erupted.