Tuesday, August 3, 2010

Army History

Indonesian National Army (TNI) was born in the cauldron Indonesian struggle for independence from the threat of Dutch maintain the ambition to colonize Indonesia again through gun violence. TNI is an organization that started the development of People's Security Agency (BKR). Further, on October 5, 1945 became the People's Security Army (TKR), and to improve arrangements in accordance with international military base, converted into Army of the Republic of Indonesia (TRI).

In subsequent developments the government's efforts to improve national army went on, as she fought and fought for the upholding of sovereignty and independence of nations. To unite the two armed forces is TRI as the regular army and people's struggles agencies, on June 3, 1947 the President authorized the establishment of mengesyahkan with the Indonesian National Army (TNI).

At critical moments during the War of Independence (1945-1949), the military managed to manifest itself as a people's army, soldiers of the revolution, and the national army. As the strength of the newborn, in addition to the TNI organize themselves, at the same time must also face many challenges, both from within and from abroad. From within the country, the military face-undermining undermining both the political dimension as well as military dimensions. Political insurrection comes from communist groups who want to place the military under their influence through the â € œPepolit, Bureau of Struggle, and the Army-Community:. While the challenges of domestic military dimension of the TNI to face an armed uprising in some areas and the PKI in the Madiun rebellion and the Darul Islam (DI) in West Java that could threaten national integrity. Challenges of military overseas twice to face the Dutch Military Aggression and organizations that have more modern weapons.

Aware of the limitations of the Dutch Armed Forces in the face of aggression, the Indonesian nation implement the People's War of the Universe in which all military forces and society and national resources were deployed to confront the aggression. Thus, the integrity and existence of the Republic of Indonesia has to be maintained by military power along with the people.

In accordance with the decision of the Round Table Conference (RTC), formed in late 1949 the Republic of Indonesia (RIS). Correspondingly, also formed the Armed Forces RIS (APRIS) which is a joint Army and Colonial Army by the TNI as its core. In August 1950 Indonesia RIS disbanded and returned to the form of unitary state. APRIS was renamed the Armed Forces (APRI).

Adopted a parliamentary democratic system of government in the period 1950-1959, affecting the lives of Army. The interference of politicians who are too far in the TNI internal problems led to the event October 17, 1952 which resulted in a rift within the army. On the other hand, military intervention was encouraged to get involved in political activities with the established political parties namely Supporters of Indonesian Independence Institute (IP-KI) who took part as a contestant in the 1955 General Election.

Period also called the Period of the Liberal Democracy is characterized also by a variety of domestic rebellion. In 1950 some former members of the Colonial Army launched an uprising in Bandung (Armed rebellion Ratu Adil / APRA), Andi Azis Rebellion in Makassar, Maluku and rebellions in the South Maluku Republic (RMS). Meanwhile, DI TII West Java to expand its influence in South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi and Aceh. In 1958 the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia / Universe People's Struggle (PRRI / Permesta) doing most of the rebellions in Sumatra and North Sulawesi, which endanger the national integrity. All of the rebellion can be crushed by the military with the strength of other national components.

Efforts to unify organizations and the armed services into an organization the State Police of Republika Indonesian Armed Forces (ABRI) in the year 1962 was an important part of military history in the decade of the sixties.

Union of Army forces under one command, is expected to achieve effectiveness and efficiency in carrying out its role, and not easily influenced by the interests of certain political groups. However it is facing many challenges, especially from the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) as part of international communism had always worked hard to instill its influence into the fabric of the nation of Indonesia, including the Armed Forces into the body through infiltration and specific guidance, and by utilizing the influence of President and Supreme Commander armed forces for political purposes.

PKI efforts intensified, culminating in a coup against the legitimate government by G30S/PKI, resulting in the Indonesian nation was in a very critical situation. Under such conditions TNI successfully overcome the critical situation and to quell the power of foiled coup supporters together with the community strengths and even the entire people of Indonesia.

If the situation is completely chaotic, the Armed Forces carry out his duties as defense forces and as a force sospol. As a means of defense forces, rebels attacked the PKI and the armed forces remains. As the strength of the Armed Forces sospol encourage creation of new political arrangements for implementing Pancasila and the Constitution of 45 in a genuine and consistent.

Meanwhile, the Armed Forces continue to reform themselves by establishing an internal integration. The first step is to integrate the doctrine that eventually gave birth to the doctrine of the Armed Forces Catur Dharma Eka Karma (Cadek). This doctrine implies the reorganization of the Armed Forces as well as education and joint exercises between the Armed Forces and Police. On the other hand, the Armed Forces also conducts external integration in the form of unity with the people's armed forces are applied through a program of the Armed Forces Entrance Village (AMD).

Roles, Functions and Duties of the TNI (formerly ABRI) was also amended in accordance with Law No. 34 of 2004. TNI role as a tool in the defense sector which countries in carrying out its duties under the state policy and political decisions. Armed Forces as an instrument of national defense, serving as: an antidote against every form of military threats and armed threats from outside and within the country against the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and safety of the nation, Court against any threats referred to above, and the restorer of the condition of the state security disrupted by the security chaos.

TNI is the fundamental duty to uphold state sovereignty, defend the territorial integrity of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia based on Pancasila and the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945, and to protect the entire nation and all the spilled blood of Indonesia from the threat and disruption of the integrity of the nation and state.

Was divided into two main tasks (two), namely: the military campaign to the war and military operations other than war.

Military operations other than war include surgery to overcome the armed separatist movement, overcoming an armed rebellion, combating terrorism, securing the border regions, safeguard national vital objects that are strategic, world peace perform duties in accordance with foreign policy, securing the President and Vice President and their families, empower the defense and force early supporters in accordance with the defense system of the universe, to help the task of governance in the region, assisting the Indonesian National Police in the framework of security and public order duties stipulated in laws, help secure the state level as head of state guests and representatives of foreign governments who was in Indonesia, to help cope with natural disasters, refugee, and humanitarian aid, assist search and rescue in an accident (search and rescue) as well as assist the government in the shipping and aviation security against counterfeiting, piracy and smuggling.

While in the field of internal reform, the TNI is still continues to carry out internal reforms in accordance with the demands of national reform. TNI still in its commitment to keep the internal reforms can achieve the desired objectives in creating a new Indonesia a better future in the frame of upholding the Unitary Republic of Indonesia. In fact, since 1998 actually internally TNI has made various changes to be significant, among others:

First, formulate a new paradigm of the role of the ABRI Abad XXI, secondly, to formulate a new paradigm to reach a more military role into the future, as the actualization of the new paradigm the role of the ABRI Abad XXI; third separation from the Armed Forces Police who has been a decision of the Armed Forces Head Start 1-4 -1999 as the Transformation of Beginning; fourth, the removal of the works of the Armed Forces through retirement or transfer of the status decision. (Kep: 03 /) / II/1999); fifth, the elimination Wansospolpus and Wansospolda / Wansospolda Tk-I; sixth, shrink the number of members F.TNI / police in the House of Representatives and the DPRD I and II in the context of the elimination of political social function; seventh ; TNI is no longer involved in Practical Politics / Day to Day Politics; eighth, organizationally with the termination of the Golkar Party and take the same distance with all parties involved; ninth, commitment and consistency of the neutrality of the TNI in the election; the tenth, the arrangement of military relations with KBT (Family of TNI); eleventh revision of military doctrine adjusted for Reform and Role of the Armed Forces XXI Century; twelve, a change of staff as Staff Komsos Sospol; thirteenth, Chief of Staff of the changes in Social Politics (Kassospol) became Chief of Staff of the Territorial (caster); Fourteenth, elimination Sospoldam, Babinkardam, Sospolrem and Sospoldim; fifteenth Syawan liquidation of Staff of the Armed Forces, Armed Forces Staff and Babinkar KAMTIBMAS Armed Forces; sixteenth, the implementation of public accountability of foundations belong to the army / military entities; seventeenth, the liquidation of the Organization Deputy Army Commander, Eighteenth, deletion Bakorstanas and Bakorstanasda; nineteenth, confirmation candidates from the military KDH has had to retire from the stage filtration; twentieth, elimination of post vigilance; keduapuluhsatu, removal of material from the curriculum of the Armed Forces Sospol TNI; keduapuluhdua, the liquidation of the Organization caster TNI; 23st, the liquidation of Staff of the Social Communication (Skomsos) TNI Commander of TNI in accordance SKEP No.21 / VI / 2005; twentieth four, â € œTri doktrinTNI enactment Dharma Eka Karma (Tridek) replacing â € œCatur Dharma Eka Karma (Cadek) according to the TNI Commander Decision Kep/2/I/2007 number dated January 12, 2007.
As a means of national defense, the military is committed to continue the internal reforms in line with the demands of military and political decisions of state reform

1 comment:

  1. Nice article on the Indonesian National Army. After reading this article, I have a clear view of the formation of the Indonesian National Army.